Friday, February 02, 2018

Educational Attainment and State Income - ACS PUMS

Original Article

Summary goes here!

Educational Attainment is a measure that often used to gauge the intellectual power of a region. As a nation, it was concerned that the United State could fall behind in global economic competition and this caused various movement and initiatives try to increase the number of college graduates in the United States. While working on other projects, the author suspects the linkage between educational attainment and a state's income. This is the author's first attempt in linking a state's per capita income to the educational attainment of the state.

This article using the American Community Survey's PUMS data released by US Census Bureau to compare the educational attainment of each state. The advantage of the PUMS data is its ability to produce statistic results that is not directly available from pre-prepared tables offered by Census' website. In our case, we are interested in the educational attainment of adult population with age between 22 and 64 years old in each state.

For ranking, we will rank states with several educational attainment configurations.  See the following tables for detail.

As to the relation between per capita income and educational attainment, I will just show three quick charts at this point - it deserves closer analysis later.
* The per capita income data obtained from List of U.S. states by income on Feb. 2, 2018. The income data is derived from 2014-10 ACS data. * In general, per capita income concerns people of age 15 or older which isn't really match the age range we used in calculating the educational attainment. But assuming that the income contributed from age 15 to 22 are limited and that the adding of age 65 to 99 do change the fact much (say, the retirement income of graduate degree holder still higher than that of bachelor degree holder), the result could still be representative. A finer investigation of the situation will follow.  

For Bachelor-and-above degree holder


For Graduate degree holder


For Doctor and Professional degree holder
Of these three charts, the District of Columbia (the right most point) shows a very high income when comparing to other states. All of the three charts show high correlation values of 0.91, 0.86, and 0.79 respectively. Without District of Columbia, it brings these correlation coefficients closer. This basically reflect the fact that in two of these charts, the District of Columbia is out of line with other states. Observing the charts carefully, you can conclude that at District of Columbia, there are higher percent of master, doctor and professionals degree holders and that is why the income is high. However, these degree holders did not contribute, proportionately, as much as those in other states.
* Correlation is also done for associate degree and above and it shows lower correlation values than that of bachelor and above with or without District of Columbia.

==========
Ranking states by percent of bachelor-and-above degree holder
Stt Nm2010 Rank2011 Rank2015 Rank2016 Rank2010 %2011 %2015 %2016 %
District of Columbia111152.5%53.2%57.4%58.3%
Massachusetts222241.6%41.7%43.0%43.7%
Connecticut333337.5%37.8%39.3%39.8%
New Jersey444437.3%37.4%38.9%39.5%
Maryland555537.2%37.3%38.7%39.0%
Colorado666636.5%36.7%37.9%38.3%
Virginia777735.4%35.7%37.4%37.9%
Vermont8881034.8%35.5%36.6%36.1%
New York9109834.5%34.8%36.2%36.6%
New Hampshire10910934.5%34.8%36.1%36.6%
Minnesota1111111133.5%33.7%35.4%35.6%
Rhode Island1212131332.6%32.9%33.2%33.8%
Illinois1313121232.6%32.8%34.2%34.7%
Washington1414141431.2%31.3%32.6%33.3%
Kansas1515151631.1%31.2%31.9%32.3%
North Dakota1618222230.3%29.7%29.9%30.3%
California1716181930.1%30.1%31.0%31.5%
Hawaii1817191830.1%29.9%30.9%31.5%
Nebraska1919161529.8%29.7%31.7%32.4%
Oregon2020212129.3%29.4%30.4%31.1%
Pennsylvania2121171729.3%29.4%31.0%31.7%
Delaware2223202028.9%28.5%30.8%31.4%
Montana2322282928.8%29.2%28.7%28.9%
Utah2424232428.7%28.4%29.5%29.9%
Georgia2525262728.0%28.2%29.1%29.6%
Wisconsin2627252327.6%27.6%29.3%29.9%
Maine2726242627.6%28.0%29.5%29.7%
Iowa2828292827.4%27.4%28.7%29.2%
North Carolina2929272527.3%27.4%29.1%29.8%
South Dakota3031323127.2%27.3%27.7%28.5%
Missouri3130303027.0%27.3%28.5%28.8%
Michigan3232313226.7%26.7%27.9%28.3%
Florida3333353526.6%26.4%27.3%27.7%
Alaska3434363626.4%26.2%27.0%27.5%
Arizona3537373726.1%25.8%26.7%27.1%
Texas3636343426.0%26.2%27.4%27.9%
Ohio3735333326.0%26.2%27.4%28.0%
South Carolina3839393824.8%24.7%25.8%26.6%
New Mexico3940434324.7%24.4%24.6%24.8%
Idaho4038414224.7%25.0%25.3%25.5%
Indiana4141424124.1%24.2%25.3%25.9%
Tennessee4243383924.0%24.1%26.0%26.5%
Wyoming4342404023.6%24.2%25.7%25.9%
Oklahoma4444444423.3%23.4%24.5%24.7%
Alabama4545454522.9%22.9%23.9%24.4%
Kentucky4646464621.8%21.7%23.2%23.7%
Nevada4747484821.6%21.6%22.0%22.2%
Louisiana4848474721.5%21.6%22.8%23.2%
Mississippi4950505120.1%20.1%20.6%20.8%
Arkansas5049494920.1%20.4%21.8%22.1%
West Virginia5151515018.8%19.2%20.5%20.9%
==========
Ranking states by percent of graduate degree holder
Stt Nm2010 Rank2011 Rank2015 Rank2016 Rank2010 %2011 %2015 %2016 %
District of Columbia111126.5%26.7%29.8%30.6%
Massachusetts222216.4%16.5%17.3%17.6%
Maryland333315.6%15.6%16.4%16.6%
Connecticut444415.2%15.4%16.0%16.2%
Virginia555513.7%13.8%14.8%15.1%
New York666613.7%13.8%14.3%14.4%
New Jersey777713.2%13.2%13.7%14.0%
Vermont889912.3%12.5%12.7%12.8%
Colorado998812.0%12.1%12.7%13.0%
Rhode Island1011121211.7%11.8%12.0%12.2%
New Hampshire1110101011.6%11.9%12.6%12.6%
Illinois1212111111.4%11.4%12.1%12.3%
Delaware1313131310.9%10.7%11.4%11.6%
Washington1414151510.4%10.5%11.0%11.2%
Pennsylvania1515141410.3%10.4%11.1%11.3%
California1616171910.2%10.2%10.6%10.8%
Minnesota1717161610.0%10.1%10.9%11.0%
Oregon181818179.9%10.0%10.5%10.8%
New Mexico192021219.8%9.7%9.9%10.0%
Kansas201919189.8%9.9%10.5%10.8%
Michigan212223229.4%9.5%9.8%10.0%
Georgia222120209.4%9.5%10.1%10.4%
Hawaii232426269.4%9.3%9.4%9.6%
Missouri242322239.3%9.4%9.9%9.9%
Ohio252625278.9%9.0%9.4%9.6%
Alaska262524288.8%9.1%9.5%9.4%
Maine272729308.8%9.0%9.2%9.3%
Arizona282932318.8%8.6%9.0%9.2%
Utah293130298.6%8.5%9.0%9.3%
Nebraska303228248.6%8.5%9.3%9.7%
Wisconsin312831328.6%8.7%9.0%9.1%
Florida323033338.6%8.6%8.9%9.0%
North Carolina333327258.4%8.5%9.4%9.7%
Kentucky343534348.2%8.1%8.8%8.9%
Montana353437398.2%8.3%8.5%8.5%
South Carolina363739378.1%8.0%8.4%8.7%
Texas373636368.0%8.1%8.6%8.8%
Tennessee383835357.8%7.9%8.7%8.8%
Indiana394042427.8%7.7%8.0%8.1%
Iowa403938387.7%7.8%8.4%8.6%
Alabama414141407.6%7.7%8.1%8.3%
Wyoming424240417.4%7.6%8.1%8.2%
South Dakota434448457.2%7.1%7.0%7.4%
Idaho444343447.1%7.3%7.5%7.6%
North Dakota454746476.9%6.8%7.2%7.3%
Oklahoma464545466.9%6.9%7.3%7.4%
West Virginia474644436.8%6.8%7.4%7.7%
Nevada484851516.8%6.7%6.9%6.9%
Mississippi494950506.6%6.6%6.9%7.1%
Louisiana505049486.5%6.4%7.0%7.2%
Arkansas515147496.2%6.3%7.0%7.1%
* Data in the table are labeled with the data release year. For example, the '2016' actually cover the data collected between 2012 and 2016. The value is to be interpreted as the average between those years.

Observing the above table, it shows every single state listed, including District of Columbia, is making progresses in improving its educational attainment level. Ranking with the percent difference between the first and last available educational attainment level, it shows that District of Columbia leading the improvement with a change of 4.14% followed by Virginia, North Carolina, Massachusetts, and Nebraska. Rounding up the top ten, here comes the Maryland, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, Georgia, and Minnesota.
============
Ranking states by percent of Doctor or Professional degree holder
Stt Nm2010 Rank2011 Rank2015 Rank2016 Rank2010 %2011 %2015 %2016 %
District of Columbia111110.9%10.8%11.0%11.2%
Maryland22334.9%4.9%4.9%4.9%
Massachusetts33224.8%4.8%5.0%5.1%
Connecticut44444.1%4.2%4.3%4.3%
New York55563.8%3.8%3.9%3.9%
Virginia66673.6%3.6%3.8%3.8%
New Jersey77783.6%3.6%3.7%3.7%
Vermont89853.3%3.3%3.6%3.9%
California9810103.3%3.3%3.3%3.4%
Rhode Island1010993.2%3.2%3.4%3.6%
Hawaii111518173.2%3.0%3.0%3.1%
Colorado121111113.1%3.1%3.3%3.3%
Pennsylvania131414143.1%3.0%3.1%3.2%
Delaware141615153.1%3.0%3.1%3.1%
Oregon151316163.1%3.1%3.0%3.1%
Illinois161213133.1%3.1%3.2%3.2%
New Mexico171822223.0%3.0%2.8%2.8%
Washington181717183.0%3.0%3.0%3.0%
Minnesota191912123.0%3.0%3.2%3.3%
New Hampshire202019202.8%2.8%3.0%2.9%
Nebraska212326232.7%2.6%2.7%2.7%
Florida222225262.7%2.6%2.7%2.7%
Georgia232121192.7%2.7%2.9%3.0%
Kansas242524242.6%2.6%2.7%2.7%
Alaska252420212.6%2.6%2.9%2.8%
Missouri262627272.5%2.6%2.6%2.6%
Utah273031312.5%2.4%2.5%2.6%
Montana282737302.5%2.6%2.4%2.6%
Michigan292832332.5%2.5%2.5%2.5%
Ohio302933352.4%2.4%2.5%2.5%
Arizona313636362.4%2.3%2.4%2.5%
Wisconsin323538372.4%2.4%2.4%2.5%
Iowa333328282.4%2.4%2.6%2.6%
North Carolina343430292.4%2.4%2.5%2.6%
Maine353123252.4%2.4%2.7%2.7%
Tennessee363229342.4%2.4%2.5%2.5%
Kentucky373835382.3%2.3%2.4%2.5%
Texas383940392.3%2.3%2.3%2.3%
Idaho393741412.3%2.3%2.2%2.3%
South Dakota404047422.2%2.2%2.0%2.3%
Indiana414344452.2%2.1%2.1%2.1%
Louisiana424442402.2%2.1%2.2%2.3%
Wyoming434134322.1%2.2%2.5%2.5%
North Dakota444239442.1%2.1%2.3%2.2%
South Carolina454746462.1%2.1%2.1%2.1%
Alabama464643432.1%2.1%2.2%2.2%
Nevada474548492.1%2.1%2.0%2.0%
Oklahoma485045472.0%2.0%2.1%2.1%
Mississippi494951512.0%2.0%1.9%1.9%
West Virginia504849481.9%2.0%2.0%2.0%
Arkansas515150501.8%1.7%1.9%1.9%
============

Sunday, January 28, 2018

Brain Drain - Ranking and Analysis with 2016 ACS PUMS

Original Article

Brain Drain Migration with 2016-12 ACS PUMS data!

This is a data update to my previous article Brain Drain - Ranking and Analysis with 2015 ACS data, which reports brain drain analysis based on the 2015 5-year ACS PUMS data. This article presents the same kind of information based on the 2016 5-year ACS PUMS data. For terms used in the analysis, please referring to the aforementioned ACS 2015 article.

As with previous article, the presentation is hosted at Tableau's public web portal here.

Tables presented in my previous article is updated below.

Net (in) Migration per 1000 22-64 years old population
StateEd. Attainmentper 1000 RsdUpperLower
Washington6. Grdts2.42.81.9
Colorado6. Grdts1.52.20.8
Montana6. Grdts1.53.00.0
Delaware6. Grdts1.52.90.0
Oregon6. Grdts1.21.90.5
New Hampshire6. Grdts1.12.5-0.2
South Carolina6. Grdts1.11.60.7
Texas6. Grdts1.01.10.8
Utah6. Grdts0.91.70.1
Nevada6. Grdts0.91.60.2
Arizona6. Grdts0.81.30.3
Vermont6. Grdts0.83.3-1.8
North Carolina6. Grdts0.71.20.3
Idaho6. Grdts0.71.7-0.3
Maine6. Grdts0.61.8-0.5
California6. Grdts0.60.80.4
Florida6. Grdts0.60.80.3
New Mexico6. Grdts0.41.4-0.5
Maryland6. Grdts0.41.0-0.2
Minnesota6. Grdts0.40.9-0.2
South Dakota6. Grdts0.31.5-1.0
Wyoming6. Grdts0.11.8-1.5
Alabama6. Grdts0.10.6-0.3
Tennessee6. Grdts0.10.5-0.3
Iowa6. Grdts0.10.7-0.6
Virginia6. Grdts0.00.6-0.5
Arkansas6. Grdts-0.10.5-0.7
Georgia6. Grdts-0.20.2-0.6
Louisiana6. Grdts-0.20.2-0.6
North Dakota6. Grdts-0.31.6-2.1
Wisconsin6. Grdts-0.40.1-0.9
Hawaii6. Grdts-0.40.8-1.6
Ohio6. Grdts-0.5-0.1-0.8
Connecticut6. Grdts-0.50.2-1.1
Mississippi6. Grdts-0.50.0-1.0
Massachusetts6. Grdts-0.60.0-1.2
Kansas6. Grdts-0.60.2-1.5
Nebraska6. Grdts-0.60.3-1.5
Indiana6. Grdts-0.6-0.3-1.0
Michigan6. Grdts-0.7-0.4-1.0
West Virginia6. Grdts-0.8-0.1-1.4
Pennsylvania6. Grdts-0.9-0.6-1.2
Kentucky6. Grdts-0.9-0.5-1.3
Missouri6. Grdts-0.9-0.5-1.4
New Jersey6. Grdts-1.0-0.7-1.4
Oklahoma6. Grdts-1.1-0.5-1.6
Illinois6. Grdts-1.4-1.0-1.7
Rhode Island6. Grdts-1.40.1-2.9
New York6. Grdts-1.6-1.3-1.9
Alaska6. Grdts-4.1-1.8-6.3
District of Columbia6. Grdts-5.0-1.1-8.9
Colorado5. BchlrDgr4.15.13.1
Washington5. BchlrDgr2.83.62.0
Oregon5. BchlrDgr2.43.41.3
Nevada5. BchlrDgr2.43.31.4
Arizona5. BchlrDgr2.02.81.2
Texas5. BchlrDgr1.51.81.3
North Carolina5. BchlrDgr1.31.90.7
Florida5. BchlrDgr1.21.60.9
Maine5. BchlrDgr1.22.9-0.5
South Carolina5. BchlrDgr1.12.00.2
Tennessee5. BchlrDgr1.01.80.3
New Hampshire5. BchlrDgr0.92.7-1.0
Idaho5. BchlrDgr0.72.3-0.9
California5. BchlrDgr0.60.90.4
Louisiana5. BchlrDgr0.61.4-0.1
Arkansas5. BchlrDgr0.51.3-0.4
Virginia5. BchlrDgr0.41.0-0.3
Georgia5. BchlrDgr0.10.7-0.4
Kentucky5. BchlrDgr0.10.8-0.5
District of Columbia5. BchlrDgr0.13.4-3.2
Hawaii5. BchlrDgr-0.11.5-1.7
Maryland5. BchlrDgr-0.20.8-1.1
Delaware5. BchlrDgr-0.21.6-2.0
Minnesota5. BchlrDgr-0.40.5-1.3
Kansas5. BchlrDgr-0.60.7-1.8
Massachusetts5. BchlrDgr-0.70.0-1.4
Alabama5. BchlrDgr-0.8-0.1-1.6
Illinois5. BchlrDgr-0.9-0.4-1.3
Nebraska5. BchlrDgr-0.90.3-2.2
Missouri5. BchlrDgr-0.9-0.1-1.7
Wyoming5. BchlrDgr-0.92.6-4.5
Oklahoma5. BchlrDgr-1.2-0.4-1.9
Connecticut5. BchlrDgr-1.2-0.2-2.2
Montana5. BchlrDgr-1.20.8-3.2
South Dakota5. BchlrDgr-1.20.9-3.3
New York5. BchlrDgr-1.3-0.9-1.6
Michigan5. BchlrDgr-1.3-0.8-1.7
Ohio5. BchlrDgr-1.3-0.8-1.8
Indiana5. BchlrDgr-1.3-0.8-1.9
Mississippi5. BchlrDgr-1.4-0.6-2.3
Pennsylvania5. BchlrDgr-1.5-1.1-1.9
Wisconsin5. BchlrDgr-1.7-0.9-2.5
Utah5. BchlrDgr-1.8-0.7-2.8
West Virginia5. BchlrDgr-1.8-1.0-2.7
New Mexico5. BchlrDgr-2.1-1.0-3.1
New Jersey5. BchlrDgr-2.6-2.1-3.1
Iowa5. BchlrDgr-2.6-1.7-3.6
North Dakota5. BchlrDgr-3.4-0.7-6.1
Rhode Island5. BchlrDgr-4.2-2.4-6.0
Vermont5. BchlrDgr-6.0-3.0-8.9
Alaska5. BchlrDgr-8.8-5.3-12.2
Delaware4. AssctDgr2.63.51.6
North Dakota4. AssctDgr2.04.00.0
Montana4. AssctDgr1.53.00.0
Florida4. AssctDgr0.81.00.6
Idaho4. AssctDgr0.81.7-0.1
Colorado4. AssctDgr0.71.20.2
Arizona4. AssctDgr0.71.10.3
South Carolina4. AssctDgr0.71.20.2
Utah4. AssctDgr0.71.30.0
Nevada4. AssctDgr0.71.30.0
Oregon4. AssctDgr0.61.10.1
North Carolina4. AssctDgr0.50.80.2
Maine4. AssctDgr0.51.3-0.4
Hawaii4. AssctDgr0.51.6-0.7
Kentucky4. AssctDgr0.40.8-0.1
Texas4. AssctDgr0.40.50.2
Nebraska4. AssctDgr0.41.2-0.5
Tennessee4. AssctDgr0.30.7-0.1
Missouri4. AssctDgr0.30.7-0.1
Wisconsin4. AssctDgr0.30.6-0.1
Washington4. AssctDgr0.30.7-0.1
Alabama4. AssctDgr0.30.7-0.2
South Dakota4. AssctDgr0.21.8-1.4
Iowa4. AssctDgr0.10.8-0.6
Virginia4. AssctDgr0.10.3-0.2
West Virginia4. AssctDgr0.10.8-0.7
Ohio4. AssctDgr0.00.2-0.2
Maryland4. AssctDgr0.00.4-0.3
Massachusetts4. AssctDgr0.00.3-0.3
Mississippi4. AssctDgr0.00.5-0.5
Oklahoma4. AssctDgr0.00.4-0.4
New Hampshire4. AssctDgr-0.10.8-1.0
Indiana4. AssctDgr-0.10.2-0.4
Georgia4. AssctDgr-0.10.2-0.4
Louisiana4. AssctDgr-0.20.2-0.5
New Jersey4. AssctDgr-0.20.0-0.4
Wyoming4. AssctDgr-0.22.6-2.9
Michigan4. AssctDgr-0.20.0-0.4
California4. AssctDgr-0.3-0.2-0.4
New Mexico4. AssctDgr-0.40.2-1.0
Kansas4. AssctDgr-0.40.2-1.0
Connecticut4. AssctDgr-0.40.0-0.8
Arkansas4. AssctDgr-0.5-0.1-0.8
Minnesota4. AssctDgr-0.50.0-1.0
Pennsylvania4. AssctDgr-0.5-0.2-0.8
Illinois4. AssctDgr-0.7-0.5-1.0
Rhode Island4. AssctDgr-0.80.1-1.8
New York4. AssctDgr-0.9-0.8-1.1
Vermont4. AssctDgr-2.0-0.8-3.2
District of Columbia4. AssctDgr-2.1-0.9-3.3
Alaska4. AssctDgr-3.5-1.4-5.6
North Dakota3. SomeCllg5.28.02.4
Oregon3. SomeCllg3.34.22.5
Nevada3. SomeCllg3.34.52.1
Wyoming3. SomeCllg2.45.8-1.0
Colorado3. SomeCllg2.33.31.4
Arizona3. SomeCllg2.02.81.3
Idaho3. SomeCllg1.93.60.2
South Dakota3. SomeCllg1.73.6-0.2
Delaware3. SomeCllg1.53.4-0.3
Utah3. SomeCllg1.32.60.1
South Carolina3. SomeCllg1.32.20.4
Montana3. SomeCllg1.23.2-0.8
Florida3. SomeCllg1.21.50.8
Arkansas3. SomeCllg1.22.20.1
Texas3. SomeCllg1.01.40.7
Alabama3. SomeCllg0.81.50.1
Georgia3. SomeCllg0.81.40.2
Maine3. SomeCllg0.82.1-0.6
Vermont3. SomeCllg0.72.7-1.2
North Carolina3. SomeCllg0.71.20.1
Tennessee3. SomeCllg0.71.4-0.1
Hawaii3. SomeCllg0.62.6-1.4
Missouri3. SomeCllg0.61.20.0
New Hampshire3. SomeCllg0.61.9-0.7
Kentucky3. SomeCllg0.51.4-0.3
Washington3. SomeCllg0.31.0-0.4
Nebraska3. SomeCllg0.31.6-1.1
Wisconsin3. SomeCllg0.30.9-0.3
Virginia3. SomeCllg0.10.7-0.5
Oklahoma3. SomeCllg0.00.9-0.8
Iowa3. SomeCllg0.00.9-0.9
Ohio3. SomeCllg0.00.4-0.4
Indiana3. SomeCllg0.00.6-0.7
Kansas3. SomeCllg-0.10.9-1.2
Rhode Island3. SomeCllg-0.21.1-1.4
West Virginia3. SomeCllg-0.20.9-1.3
Louisiana3. SomeCllg-0.30.6-1.1
Massachusetts3. SomeCllg-0.40.1-0.9
Mississippi3. SomeCllg-0.40.6-1.5
Maryland3. SomeCllg-0.50.1-1.1
Pennsylvania3. SomeCllg-0.5-0.1-0.8
Michigan3. SomeCllg-0.6-0.2-1.0
Minnesota3. SomeCllg-0.60.0-1.2
Connecticut3. SomeCllg-0.7-0.1-1.4
New Mexico3. SomeCllg-0.80.5-2.1
District of Columbia3. SomeCllg-1.31.0-3.5
California3. SomeCllg-1.3-1.1-1.5
New Jersey3. SomeCllg-1.4-1.1-1.8
Illinois3. SomeCllg-1.5-1.1-1.8
New York3. SomeCllg-1.9-1.7-2.1
Alaska3. SomeCllg-14.1-10.0-18.1
Nevada2. HsDgrEqv3.24.42.0
Idaho2. HsDgrEqv2.84.31.3
Delaware2. HsDgrEqv2.24.00.3
Florida2. HsDgrEqv2.12.51.7
Oregon2. HsDgrEqv1.72.31.0
New Hampshire2. HsDgrEqv1.52.80.1
South Carolina2. HsDgrEqv1.42.30.6
Arizona2. HsDgrEqv1.42.10.8
Arkansas2. HsDgrEqv1.42.50.3
Colorado2. HsDgrEqv1.11.70.4
Washington2. HsDgrEqv1.01.60.4
Georgia2. HsDgrEqv0.91.30.5
New Mexico2. HsDgrEqv0.92.0-0.2
Utah2. HsDgrEqv0.71.6-0.1
Texas2. HsDgrEqv0.71.00.4
North Dakota2. HsDgrEqv0.74.0-2.7
Tennessee2. HsDgrEqv0.61.30.0
Indiana2. HsDgrEqv0.51.00.0
North Carolina2. HsDgrEqv0.51.0-0.1
Nebraska2. HsDgrEqv0.41.5-0.7
Louisiana2. HsDgrEqv0.31.0-0.4
Kentucky2. HsDgrEqv0.31.1-0.5
Iowa2. HsDgrEqv0.31.3-0.7
Missouri2. HsDgrEqv0.30.9-0.3
Oklahoma2. HsDgrEqv0.31.3-0.8
Wisconsin2. HsDgrEqv0.20.7-0.2
Virginia2. HsDgrEqv0.20.7-0.3
Ohio2. HsDgrEqv0.20.5-0.2
Montana2. HsDgrEqv0.12.1-1.9
West Virginia2. HsDgrEqv-0.11.6-1.7
Maryland2. HsDgrEqv-0.10.5-0.6
Michigan2. HsDgrEqv-0.10.2-0.5
Alabama2. HsDgrEqv-0.30.4-1.0
Pennsylvania2. HsDgrEqv-0.30.1-0.7
Kansas2. HsDgrEqv-0.30.8-1.4
Minnesota2. HsDgrEqv-0.40.1-0.9
Maine2. HsDgrEqv-0.40.9-1.7
Mississippi2. HsDgrEqv-0.50.5-1.6
Rhode Island2. HsDgrEqv-0.70.6-2.0
Wyoming2. HsDgrEqv-0.82.5-4.0
New Jersey2. HsDgrEqv-1.0-0.6-1.4
California2. HsDgrEqv-1.0-0.8-1.2
South Dakota2. HsDgrEqv-1.10.7-3.0
Massachusetts2. HsDgrEqv-1.2-0.7-1.6
Connecticut2. HsDgrEqv-1.2-0.6-1.8
Illinois2. HsDgrEqv-1.3-0.9-1.6
Vermont2. HsDgrEqv-1.40.0-2.9
New York2. HsDgrEqv-1.9-1.6-2.1
Hawaii2. HsDgrEqv-2.0-0.2-3.7
District of Columbia2. HsDgrEqv-7.4-5.5-9.4
Alaska2. HsDgrEqv-20.4-17.0-23.9
Delaware1. LssHsDgr1.22.30.2
Oklahoma1. LssHsDgr1.01.60.4
Wyoming1. LssHsDgr0.93.1-1.2
Nevada1. LssHsDgr0.91.70.1
Kansas1. LssHsDgr0.71.30.0
South Dakota1. LssHsDgr0.61.9-0.7
Minnesota1. LssHsDgr0.50.90.2
Georgia1. LssHsDgr0.50.80.2
Louisiana1. LssHsDgr0.50.90.1
North Dakota1. LssHsDgr0.51.5-0.5
Wisconsin1. LssHsDgr0.50.80.2
Mississippi1. LssHsDgr0.51.1-0.2
Texas1. LssHsDgr0.40.60.3
Tennessee1. LssHsDgr0.40.80.0
Oregon1. LssHsDgr0.40.9-0.1
Colorado1. LssHsDgr0.40.80.0
Washington1. LssHsDgr0.40.80.1
Michigan1. LssHsDgr0.30.60.1
New Mexico1. LssHsDgr0.31.1-0.4
West Virginia1. LssHsDgr0.31.1-0.5
Ohio1. LssHsDgr0.30.50.0
Kentucky1. LssHsDgr0.30.7-0.2
Indiana1. LssHsDgr0.30.6-0.1
Pennsylvania1. LssHsDgr0.30.50.0
Rhode Island1. LssHsDgr0.21.2-0.7
Arkansas1. LssHsDgr0.20.9-0.5
Missouri1. LssHsDgr0.20.6-0.2
Utah1. LssHsDgr0.10.7-0.5
Iowa1. LssHsDgr0.10.7-0.5
Maryland1. LssHsDgr0.00.4-0.3
Florida1. LssHsDgr0.00.2-0.2
North Carolina1. LssHsDgr0.00.3-0.3
Virginia1. LssHsDgr0.00.3-0.3
Connecticut1. LssHsDgr0.00.4-0.4
South Carolina1. LssHsDgr-0.10.3-0.5
Montana1. LssHsDgr-0.11.0-1.2
Arizona1. LssHsDgr-0.10.3-0.6
New Jersey1. LssHsDgr-0.20.1-0.4
Nebraska1. LssHsDgr-0.20.6-1.0
New Hampshire1. LssHsDgr-0.20.6-1.1
California1. LssHsDgr-0.4-0.3-0.5
Massachusetts1. LssHsDgr-0.4-0.1-0.8
Alabama1. LssHsDgr-0.50.0-1.0
Hawaii1. LssHsDgr-0.6-0.1-1.2
Vermont1. LssHsDgr-0.60.6-1.9
Illinois1. LssHsDgr-0.7-0.5-0.9
Maine1. LssHsDgr-0.70.0-1.4
Idaho1. LssHsDgr-0.80.2-1.8
New York1. LssHsDgr-0.9-0.7-1.0
District of Columbia1. LssHsDgr-2.5-1.2-3.8
Alaska1. LssHsDgr-8.0-6.0-10.0

Net (in) Migration per 1000 Ed-Attainment Rsd.( 22-64 years old)
StateEd. Attainmentper 1000 Ed.RsdUpperLower
Washington6. Grdts21.125.117.0
Montana6. Grdts17.335.1-0.5
South Carolina6. Grdts13.218.77.7
Nevada6. Grdts13.022.53.5
Delaware6. Grdts12.525.00.0
Colorado6. Grdts11.517.05.9
Oregon6. Grdts11.117.84.3
Texas6. Grdts10.912.99.0
Utah6. Grdts9.818.70.9
Idaho6. Grdts9.422.8-3.9
New Hampshire6. Grdts9.119.9-1.7
Arizona6. Grdts8.514.03.0
North Carolina6. Grdts7.712.03.3
Maine6. Grdts6.918.9-5.0
Florida6. Grdts6.39.23.5
Vermont6. Grdts5.925.6-13.7
California6. Grdts5.67.23.9
New Mexico6. Grdts4.513.5-4.6
South Dakota6. Grdts3.420.4-13.5
Minnesota6. Grdts3.38.3-1.6
Maryland6. Grdts2.46.0-1.3
Wyoming6. Grdts1.822.0-18.4
Alabama6. Grdts1.67.1-3.9
Tennessee6. Grdts0.95.8-4.0
Iowa6. Grdts0.78.3-7.0
Virginia6. Grdts0.34.0-3.5
Arkansas6. Grdts-1.26.8-9.2
Georgia6. Grdts-2.11.8-6.0
Connecticut6. Grdts-3.00.9-6.9
Louisiana6. Grdts-3.12.7-9.0
Massachusetts6. Grdts-3.4-0.1-6.6
North Dakota6. Grdts-3.621.8-29.1
Hawaii6. Grdts-4.48.2-17.0
Wisconsin6. Grdts-4.51.1-10.1
Ohio6. Grdts-4.8-1.0-8.6
Kansas6. Grdts-5.72.3-13.6
Nebraska6. Grdts-6.42.7-15.5
Michigan6. Grdts-7.0-3.7-10.3
Mississippi6. Grdts-7.3-0.4-14.1
New Jersey6. Grdts-7.5-4.7-10.3
Indiana6. Grdts-7.9-3.2-12.5
Pennsylvania6. Grdts-7.9-5.3-10.5
Missouri6. Grdts-9.2-4.7-13.8
West Virginia6. Grdts-10.0-1.9-18.0
Kentucky6. Grdts-10.1-5.7-14.5
Illinois6. Grdts-11.1-8.3-13.9
New York6. Grdts-11.3-9.3-13.3
Rhode Island6. Grdts-11.60.7-24.0
Oklahoma6. Grdts-14.2-7.3-21.1
District of Columbia6. Grdts-16.4-3.7-29.1
Alaska6. Grdts-43.1-19.4-66.8
Colorado5. BchlrDgr16.220.012.4
Nevada5. BchlrDgr15.521.89.2
Washington5. BchlrDgr12.716.39.0
Oregon5. BchlrDgr11.717.06.4
Arizona5. BchlrDgr11.115.56.8
Texas5. BchlrDgr8.19.56.7
Florida5. BchlrDgr6.68.44.9
North Carolina5. BchlrDgr6.69.53.6
Maine5. BchlrDgr6.014.4-2.4
South Carolina5. BchlrDgr6.011.01.0
Tennessee5. BchlrDgr5.99.91.8
Louisiana5. BchlrDgr3.98.6-0.8
Idaho5. BchlrDgr3.912.9-5.2
New Hampshire5. BchlrDgr3.611.2-4.0
Arkansas5. BchlrDgr3.28.9-2.5
California5. BchlrDgr3.04.12.0
Virginia5. BchlrDgr1.64.5-1.4
Kentucky5. BchlrDgr0.85.3-3.7
Georgia5. BchlrDgr0.73.6-2.1
District of Columbia5. BchlrDgr0.412.2-11.5
Hawaii5. BchlrDgr-0.37.0-7.7
Maryland5. BchlrDgr-0.83.4-5.1
Delaware5. BchlrDgr-1.08.2-10.1
Minnesota5. BchlrDgr-1.61.9-5.1
Kansas5. BchlrDgr-2.73.1-8.4
Massachusetts5. BchlrDgr-2.8-0.2-5.4
Illinois5. BchlrDgr-3.9-1.7-6.0
Nebraska5. BchlrDgr-4.11.5-9.6
Missouri5. BchlrDgr-4.9-0.7-9.1
Connecticut5. BchlrDgr-5.0-0.7-9.3
Alabama5. BchlrDgr-5.3-0.4-10.2
Wyoming5. BchlrDgr-5.315.0-25.6
New York5. BchlrDgr-5.7-4.1-7.3
South Dakota5. BchlrDgr-5.74.4-15.9
Montana5. BchlrDgr-5.84.1-15.8
Oklahoma5. BchlrDgr-6.7-2.2-11.1
Michigan5. BchlrDgr-7.0-4.5-9.4
Ohio5. BchlrDgr-7.3-4.6-10.0
Pennsylvania5. BchlrDgr-7.4-5.3-9.5
Indiana5. BchlrDgr-7.6-4.5-10.6
Wisconsin5. BchlrDgr-8.1-4.5-11.8
Utah5. BchlrDgr-8.5-3.3-13.8
New Jersey5. BchlrDgr-10.2-8.1-12.3
Mississippi5. BchlrDgr-10.5-4.2-16.9
Iowa5. BchlrDgr-12.8-8.1-17.5
New Mexico5. BchlrDgr-14.0-7.0-20.9
West Virginia5. BchlrDgr-14.1-7.2-20.9
North Dakota5. BchlrDgr-14.9-3.2-26.6
Rhode Island5. BchlrDgr-19.6-11.2-27.9
Vermont5. BchlrDgr-25.6-13.0-38.3
Alaska5. BchlrDgr-48.5-29.3-67.6
Delaware4. AssctDgr32.143.920.2
Montana4. AssctDgr15.530.90.1
North Dakota4. AssctDgr13.226.40.0
Nevada4. AssctDgr8.216.10.2
Colorado4. AssctDgr8.013.92.2
Idaho4. AssctDgr7.916.7-0.9
Arizona4. AssctDgr7.811.93.7
Florida4. AssctDgr7.39.05.6
South Carolina4. AssctDgr7.312.22.4
Utah4. AssctDgr6.312.50.2
Oregon4. AssctDgr6.111.60.6
North Carolina4. AssctDgr5.28.41.9
Texas4. AssctDgr5.06.93.1
Kentucky4. AssctDgr4.49.5-0.7
Maine4. AssctDgr4.312.0-3.3
Tennessee4. AssctDgr4.19.7-1.5
Hawaii4. AssctDgr4.014.0-5.9
Missouri4. AssctDgr3.37.8-1.1
Nebraska4. AssctDgr3.211.0-4.7
Alabama4. AssctDgr2.97.9-2.1
Washington4. AssctDgr2.66.4-1.3
Wisconsin4. AssctDgr2.45.6-0.9
South Dakota4. AssctDgr1.613.9-10.7
Virginia4. AssctDgr0.94.4-2.7
West Virginia4. AssctDgr0.810.5-8.8
Iowa4. AssctDgr0.85.7-4.2
Ohio4. AssctDgr0.42.5-1.6
Maryland4. AssctDgr0.35.5-5.0
Massachusetts4. AssctDgr0.03.3-3.4
Mississippi4. AssctDgr-0.24.9-5.2
Oklahoma4. AssctDgr-0.44.7-5.5
New Hampshire4. AssctDgr-0.98.1-9.9
Indiana4. AssctDgr-1.32.0-4.5
Wyoming4. AssctDgr-1.621.5-24.7
Georgia4. AssctDgr-1.82.1-5.7
Michigan4. AssctDgr-2.00.1-4.1
New Jersey4. AssctDgr-2.70.7-6.0
Louisiana4. AssctDgr-2.73.2-8.6
Minnesota4. AssctDgr-3.70.3-7.7
California4. AssctDgr-4.2-3.0-5.5
New Mexico4. AssctDgr-4.32.2-10.9
Kansas4. AssctDgr-4.61.7-10.9
Connecticut4. AssctDgr-5.4-0.6-10.2
Pennsylvania4. AssctDgr-5.5-2.7-8.4
Arkansas4. AssctDgr-6.3-1.0-11.6
Illinois4. AssctDgr-8.5-5.7-11.3
Rhode Island4. AssctDgr-9.11.3-19.6
New York4. AssctDgr-9.8-8.3-11.3
Vermont4. AssctDgr-23.5-9.0-38.0
Alaska4. AssctDgr-43.1-17.6-68.6
District of Columbia4. AssctDgr-68.2-29.2-107.2
North Dakota3. SomeCllg20.832.09.6
Oregon3. SomeCllg12.415.59.3
Nevada3. SomeCllg12.116.67.7
Colorado3. SomeCllg10.114.16.1
Wyoming3. SomeCllg8.720.9-3.5
Arizona3. SomeCllg7.710.64.8
Delaware3. SomeCllg7.416.3-1.5
South Dakota3. SomeCllg7.215.5-1.0
Idaho3. SomeCllg6.812.80.8
South Carolina3. SomeCllg5.69.71.5
Florida3. SomeCllg5.46.93.9
Arkansas3. SomeCllg4.89.00.6
Utah3. SomeCllg4.68.90.3
Montana3. SomeCllg4.612.2-3.1
Texas3. SomeCllg4.45.73.1
Vermont3. SomeCllg3.713.6-6.2
Maine3. SomeCllg3.59.5-2.6
Georgia3. SomeCllg3.46.00.9
Alabama3. SomeCllg3.46.20.6
Tennessee3. SomeCllg3.06.2-0.3
New Hampshire3. SomeCllg2.99.3-3.5
North Carolina3. SomeCllg2.95.30.4
Hawaii3. SomeCllg2.510.9-5.8
Missouri3. SomeCllg2.44.90.0
Kentucky3. SomeCllg2.46.0-1.3
Washington3. SomeCllg1.23.9-1.4
Wisconsin3. SomeCllg1.23.7-1.4
Nebraska3. SomeCllg1.26.8-4.4
Virginia3. SomeCllg0.53.2-2.1
Oklahoma3. SomeCllg0.23.5-3.1
Iowa3. SomeCllg0.13.9-3.7
Ohio3. SomeCllg0.01.8-1.8
Indiana3. SomeCllg-0.12.8-3.0
Kansas3. SomeCllg-0.53.6-4.6
Rhode Island3. SomeCllg-0.85.0-6.7
West Virginia3. SomeCllg-0.94.3-6.2
Louisiana3. SomeCllg-1.12.6-4.9
Mississippi3. SomeCllg-1.72.6-6.1
Michigan3. SomeCllg-2.2-0.7-3.7
Maryland3. SomeCllg-2.30.5-5.1
Massachusetts3. SomeCllg-2.30.3-4.9
Minnesota3. SomeCllg-2.70.1-5.4
Pennsylvania3. SomeCllg-2.7-0.8-4.6
New Mexico3. SomeCllg-3.12.1-8.3
Connecticut3. SomeCllg-3.9-0.3-7.5
California3. SomeCllg-5.6-5.0-6.3
Illinois3. SomeCllg-6.6-4.9-8.2
New Jersey3. SomeCllg-7.9-5.8-9.9
District of Columbia3. SomeCllg-9.47.1-26.0
New York3. SomeCllg-10.8-9.5-12.1
Alaska3. SomeCllg-47.4-33.8-61.1
Nevada2. HsDgrEqv11.215.47.1
Idaho2. HsDgrEqv10.115.64.6
Florida2. HsDgrEqv7.58.96.1
Delaware2. HsDgrEqv7.313.61.0
Oregon2. HsDgrEqv7.210.24.2
Arizona2. HsDgrEqv5.98.63.2
New Hampshire2. HsDgrEqv5.510.40.5
Colorado2. HsDgrEqv5.18.22.0
South Carolina2. HsDgrEqv5.07.92.0
Washington2. HsDgrEqv4.57.11.9
Arkansas2. HsDgrEqv4.17.40.8
New Mexico2. HsDgrEqv3.47.5-0.8
Georgia2. HsDgrEqv3.34.91.8
Utah2. HsDgrEqv3.37.2-0.6
Texas2. HsDgrEqv2.83.91.7
North Dakota2. HsDgrEqv2.816.6-11.0
Tennessee2. HsDgrEqv2.03.90.1
North Carolina2. HsDgrEqv1.94.1-0.2
Nebraska2. HsDgrEqv1.96.5-2.8
Indiana2. HsDgrEqv1.63.20.0
Iowa2. HsDgrEqv1.14.6-2.4
Kentucky2. HsDgrEqv1.03.4-1.4
Louisiana2. HsDgrEqv1.03.0-1.1
Missouri2. HsDgrEqv0.93.1-1.2
Virginia2. HsDgrEqv0.93.0-1.3
Wisconsin2. HsDgrEqv0.82.5-0.8
Oklahoma2. HsDgrEqv0.84.2-2.6
Ohio2. HsDgrEqv0.51.7-0.7
Montana2. HsDgrEqv0.37.1-6.6
West Virginia2. HsDgrEqv-0.14.0-4.3
Maryland2. HsDgrEqv-0.32.0-2.6
Michigan2. HsDgrEqv-0.50.9-1.9
Pennsylvania2. HsDgrEqv-0.90.3-2.0
Alabama2. HsDgrEqv-0.91.4-3.3
Kansas2. HsDgrEqv-1.33.2-5.7
Maine2. HsDgrEqv-1.32.7-5.4
Mississippi2. HsDgrEqv-1.71.8-5.2
Minnesota2. HsDgrEqv-1.70.5-3.9
Rhode Island2. HsDgrEqv-2.82.4-7.9
Wyoming2. HsDgrEqv-2.88.7-14.3
New Jersey2. HsDgrEqv-3.7-2.1-5.3
South Dakota2. HsDgrEqv-4.02.4-10.3
Connecticut2. HsDgrEqv-4.7-2.3-7.2
Vermont2. HsDgrEqv-4.90.0-9.9
California2. HsDgrEqv-5.0-4.0-5.9
Massachusetts2. HsDgrEqv-5.2-3.2-7.1
Illinois2. HsDgrEqv-5.2-3.7-6.7
Hawaii2. HsDgrEqv-7.2-0.8-13.6
New York2. HsDgrEqv-7.7-6.7-8.7
District of Columbia2. HsDgrEqv-44.9-33.0-56.8
Alaska2. HsDgrEqv-73.4-61.0-85.8
Wyoming1. LssHsDgr14.647.5-18.3
Delaware1. LssHsDgr12.422.42.3
North Dakota1. LssHsDgr9.728.8-9.4
South Dakota1. LssHsDgr9.027.4-9.3
Minnesota1. LssHsDgr8.814.43.1
Oklahoma1. LssHsDgr8.413.33.4
Kansas1. LssHsDgr7.214.6-0.2
Wisconsin1. LssHsDgr6.410.42.4
Nevada1. LssHsDgr6.311.80.9
Colorado1. LssHsDgr4.79.6-0.2
Washington1. LssHsDgr4.58.40.6
Georgia1. LssHsDgr4.36.71.9
Oregon1. LssHsDgr4.29.2-0.7
Michigan1. LssHsDgr4.06.61.4
Tennessee1. LssHsDgr3.87.30.3
Louisiana1. LssHsDgr3.66.50.7
Ohio1. LssHsDgr3.36.00.5
Mississippi1. LssHsDgr3.27.9-1.5
Pennsylvania1. LssHsDgr3.26.20.2
Texas1. LssHsDgr2.73.61.8
West Virginia1. LssHsDgr2.69.5-4.2
Indiana1. LssHsDgr2.65.7-0.6
Rhode Island1. LssHsDgr2.411.2-6.5
New Mexico1. LssHsDgr2.47.5-2.8
Kentucky1. LssHsDgr2.25.9-1.4
Missouri1. LssHsDgr1.96.1-2.3
Arkansas1. LssHsDgr1.77.1-3.8
Iowa1. LssHsDgr1.710.5-7.2
Utah1. LssHsDgr1.48.6-5.7
Maryland1. LssHsDgr0.54.3-3.2
Florida1. LssHsDgr0.01.9-2.0
North Carolina1. LssHsDgr-0.22.4-2.7
Virginia1. LssHsDgr-0.22.9-3.4
Connecticut1. LssHsDgr-0.54.5-5.4
South Carolina1. LssHsDgr-0.82.4-4.1
Arizona1. LssHsDgr-1.12.1-4.2
New Jersey1. LssHsDgr-1.81.0-4.6
Montana1. LssHsDgr-2.015.1-19.0
Nebraska1. LssHsDgr-2.37.4-12.0
California1. LssHsDgr-2.5-1.9-3.1
Alabama1. LssHsDgr-3.9-0.2-7.6
New Hampshire1. LssHsDgr-4.010.3-18.2
Massachusetts1. LssHsDgr-5.5-1.6-9.5
Illinois1. LssHsDgr-7.0-4.8-9.2
New York1. LssHsDgr-7.3-6.0-8.6
Idaho1. LssHsDgr-8.71.7-19.1
Vermont1. LssHsDgr-9.89.3-28.9
Hawaii1. LssHsDgr-9.9-0.9-18.8
Maine1. LssHsDgr-12.4-0.8-24.0
District of Columbia1. LssHsDgr-29.5-14.4-44.7
Alaska1. LssHsDgr-117.8-88.8-146.8

Main body here

Wednesday, January 17, 2018

US College Graduation Rate by State - 2016 IPEDS

Original Article

Summary goes here!
Data Release.

Graduation Rate for Public 4-Year Institution
StatePELL GRLoan GROther GRAll GR
Alabama36.2%52.6%65.8%53.0%
Alaska17.0%20.7%28.4%24.0%
Arizona52.9%56.2%67.3%60.8%
Arkansas32.4%48.8%55.0%42.7%
California58.6%72.1%66.4%63.7%
Colorado39.6%51.7%57.5%51.0%
Connecticut56.0%56.3%69.4%63.6%
Delaware31.7%68.4%64.4%54.6%
District of Columbia8.2%0.0%20.8%12.7%
Florida40.7%53.8%57.2%49.0%
Georgia27.4%39.8%53.4%39.7%
Hawaii38.0%45.5%51.1%45.9%
Idaho34.5%45.4%47.2%40.7%
Illinois49.4%65.5%70.3%61.3%
Indiana40.0%56.3%60.2%52.1%
Iowa61.3%69.1%76.6%71.7%
Kansas40.8%54.4%62.9%54.6%
Kentucky36.7%45.9%60.0%48.5%
Louisiana37.6%41.6%56.4%48.1%
Maine38.3%50.4%58.4%47.3%
Maryland47.6%62.8%71.5%62.6%
Massachusetts56.3%66.1%61.4%61.2%
Michigan39.4%60.0%67.0%55.4%
Minnesota52.3%56.9%66.6%60.1%
Mississippi38.5%55.1%64.2%51.3%
Missouri40.9%55.6%65.5%55.3%
Montana39.1%46.5%49.5%44.5%
Nebraska48.6%53.8%63.7%57.2%
Nevada33.0%47.4%34.5%35.1%
New Hampshire62.2%69.9%72.4%68.8%
New Jersey61.0%71.5%73.2%68.5%
New Mexico36.1%35.4%47.5%40.8%
New York46.9%63.7%61.1%54.9%
North Carolina53.8%62.1%72.1%63.7%
North Dakota41.4%46.8%56.5%50.4%
Ohio33.3%56.6%66.3%51.0%
Oklahoma28.9%54.1%51.6%43.0%
Oregon50.4%61.0%63.5%59.0%
Pennsylvania51.1%64.2%70.9%62.6%
Rhode Island50.7%44.7%63.7%58.4%
South Carolina51.0%62.7%67.9%61.4%
South Dakota39.4%60.0%50.0%48.2%
Tennessee39.6%47.4%57.6%48.2%
Texas39.8%53.1%58.6%49.6%
Utah38.0%38.6%48.4%43.0%
Vermont51.9%62.7%71.6%63.2%
Virginia59.2%71.8%78.0%71.9%
Washington46.3%62.7%59.3%55.4%
West Virginia35.4%44.5%53.7%44.4%
Wisconsin43.7%54.6%60.7%54.3%
Wyoming44.9%44.5%60.9%55.4%

Public 2-Year Institution
StatePELL GRLoan GROther GRAll GR
Alabama11.7%18.3%38.6%20.8%
Alaska75.0%0.0%17.6%28.6%
Arizona15.4%17.2%21.4%17.9%
Arkansas23.9%19.3%34.4%26.6%
California26.5%28.8%35.4%31.1%
Colorado20.9%22.2%28.6%24.0%
Connecticut11.7%16.7%20.0%15.5%
Florida24.0%31.8%44.0%31.0%
Georgia24.8%26.8%29.9%26.2%
Hawaii15.4%16.9%19.5%17.4%
Idaho17.8%23.6%24.4%20.3%
Illinois21.2%28.4%32.9%27.1%
Indiana12.5%16.0%17.5%14.0%
Iowa26.4%35.3%34.5%30.6%
Kansas29.7%26.5%36.9%32.0%
Kentucky23.6%25.8%35.1%26.8%
Louisiana18.1%15.2%23.3%19.6%
Maine18.2%23.9%37.7%23.7%
Maryland13.4%16.1%22.9%18.5%
Massachusetts15.0%21.7%23.0%18.3%
Michigan13.1%17.6%19.2%15.6%
Minnesota24.2%32.4%33.4%28.3%
Mississippi25.3%30.3%43.6%30.5%
Missouri20.0%24.1%29.9%24.1%
Montana23.4%44.7%28.9%26.6%
Nebraska26.4%40.4%36.5%31.5%
Nevada32.4%37.5%28.5%30.6%
New Hampshire16.7%25.5%28.5%22.7%
New Jersey15.0%23.8%28.2%21.4%
New Mexico16.3%26.8%21.7%18.2%
New York21.4%27.0%29.1%24.3%
North Carolina16.1%28.5%27.3%20.7%
North Dakota35.3%44.2%50.6%43.6%
Ohio13.7%21.4%23.0%17.4%
Oklahoma18.3%20.9%27.8%22.6%
Oregon16.9%19.2%21.0%18.7%
Pennsylvania14.9%24.1%21.0%18.2%
Rhode Island13.7%0.0%18.5%16.5%
South Carolina12.1%14.2%19.9%14.8%
South Dakota47.7%66.2%68.7%57.6%
Tennessee15.5%17.3%28.0%19.4%
Texas16.2%17.3%16.6%16.4%
Utah16.6%28.9%25.3%20.6%
Vermont13.0%35.3%11.6%14.2%
Virginia22.0%24.1%32.2%26.5%
Washington31.2%35.9%38.3%34.8%
West Virginia17.9%17.1%30.8%20.3%
Wisconsin29.3%38.0%46.4%35.4%
Wyoming27.3%31.1%40.1%34.9%


Main body here

Monday, January 15, 2018

Student Loan a Facor In College Graduation Rate? 2016 IPEDS data



Graduation Rate for Grant Recipient is lower than that of Loan-only Recipient.


In the United States, there are various ways to finance college education. At the national level, there are Federal Pell grant and subsidized Stafford loan for needed students.

It is believed that with resources provided to help leveling the playground,needed students should have better chances to perform better. With the Graduation Rate survey component of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) provides a possible  measurement.

Beginning survey year 2016-17, the Graduation Rate survey includes measurements for students receiving Pell grant and Direct subsidized Stafford loan. The classification of students are based on the supports they received the first time they enrolled enrolled in the college. Even though, the data could not provide clear answer to questions, the results are worth pondering. Please referring to IPEDS survey description for a full description of the variables.


The first look at the data is interesting. The first chart below shows the graduation rate for 4 year public institutions for each state with the x-axis represents the rate for the (Pell) Grant recipients and the y-axis represents the rate for (Direct Subsidized Stafford) loan-only recipients. Each point in the chart represents a state. One thing stand out is that, for almost all States, the loan-only rate is higher than grant-recipient rate.As explained my colleague and few articles on the internet, grants are usually went to the most needed students first. With the hardship level in mind, the differences in graduation rates may be explained.
The second chart below shows the same thing as the first chart except for 4 year private not for profit institutions.

The third chart below shows that same thing as the two above, except for 2 year public institutions.
We know what we see, but it's worth to dig deeper into the data.

Monday, January 01, 2018

Brain Drain - 2011-07 ACS State Migration for Working Age population



A data release concerning educational population migrated between states in the United States of America. The report is based on US census' ACS 5-year PUMS data for 2011-2007!
This is a data update of my previous article 'Brain Drain - 2015 ACS State Migration for Working Age'. The data presented here is based on US census' ACS 5-year PUMS data release that covers 2011 to 2007.

As mentioned in my other recent articles, even though these are data updates, but due to survey changes and re-structure of program codes, it takes a while to get data ready for release.

Since this is a data update of my forementioned article, please refer to that article for detailed description of data. Over here, I will simply summarize the type of data that are made available.

With this data release, reader can explorer the number of people that moved to your state per year from each other state. Reader can also explorer the education attainment level of these migrated population. On the reverse side, reader can also explore the number of people leave your state and move to each other state, again, with the education attainment status available. Finally, the net migration is made available with 90% margin of error presented, which provide a sense of confidence for the data.

The released data is published via Tableau Public at here.

Related articles:
Nebraska Brain Drain Migration and Ed. Attainment, 2015 United States ACS