Tuesday, March 14, 2017

Brain Drain for United States by States DYI 2010, 2015 ACS

Additional data that enabled reader to perform their own analysis!
After writing the Brain Drain article for Nebraska: Nebraska Brain Drain Migration and Ed. Attainment, 2015 United States ACS, the author realized that all the data used to for writing that article are all made public via the Tableau Public platform except the data derived from the 2006-2010 5 year PUMS. Since the author already have those data processed, there is less a reason to publish it.

The 2006-2010 education attainment and migration data is now published at the Tableau Public platform: Brain Drain Rank and Analysis 2010-06. With this information, reader are free to explore the Brain Drain situation for the states of interest.

Have the ball and have fun.


Thursday, March 09, 2017

Nebraska Brain Drain Migration and Ed. Attainment, 2015 United States ACS

Provides detailed information on Nebraska brain drain issues with explanation.
This article is all about what the 2015 ACS data has to say about Brain Drain in Nebraska. If you are more interested in what the 2015 ACS can tell you about the Brain Drain problem in other states, please refer to Brain Drain for United States by States DYI 2010, 2015 ACS  on how to do your own analysis.

Data reported in this analysis is based on the American Community Survey's Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) released by US Census Bureau. The analysis focuses on the working age population ranging from 22 years old to 64 years old.

The analysis will look into few aspects of the brain drain/migration issues in order to provide a comprehensive view of the issue.

When the term brain drain was coined, it concerned about the migration of highly skilled or knowledgeable people out of a region and could cause the economic slowdown or break down of a region. The basic assumption behind this thought is the talent pool or the education attainment of a region is greatly related to the economic advancement of a region. If this assumption is right, the education attainment would be an indicator of the economic situation of a region. 

From Census' ACS data, we can compare current education attainment data for Nebraska to that of the past. Based on the data, we have the following: 
Ed. Attainment Level2011-20152006-2010Diff
1. Less Than High School86,19781,3104,887
2. High School Equivalent243,985259,028-15,043
3. Some College256,915254,4662,449
4. Associate Degree116,554105,46311,091
5. Bachelor Degree229,744211,12518,619
6. Graduate Degree96,17286,01810,154
Ed. Attainment Level2011-20152006-2010Diff
1. Less Than High School8.4%8.2%0.2%
2. High School Equivalent23.7%26.0%-2.3%
3. Some College25.0%25.5%-0.6%
4. Associate Degree11.3%10.6%0.7%
5. Bachelor Degree22.3%21.2%1.1%
6. Graduate Degree9.3%8.6%0.7%

* For data concerning other states, please visit the article Brain Drain - Ranking and Analysis with 2015 ACS data and follow the 'Brain Drain Rank and Analysis' link to a Tableau Public Site. Once you are there, you can use the second tab: 'Ed. attainment for selected states' to see the data.

As can be seen from the above table, in general, Nebraska has progressed to a better educated state based on the 2011-2015 and the 2006-2010 5-year PUMS. The change accounts for a 32,157 headcount increase for the working age population and a 39,864 headcount increase for the Associate Degree and above population while a -7,707 headcount decrease for the lower degree levels. Percentage wise, the Associate-Degree- and-Above level now accounted for an additional 2.6% (without rounding) of the working age population. Comparing nationally, this put Nebraska at number 6 for the percent increase of the Associate-Degree-and-above level. At the same time, the 43.0% Associate-Degree-and-Above attainment level of 2011-2015 puts Nebraska at number 14 in the nation including the District of Columbia - see table below.
District of Columbia60.5%55.5%5.0%
West Virginia28.1%25.8%2.3%
North Carolina38.6%36.5%2.2%
New York45.5%43.7%1.8%
New Hampshire46.3%44.6%1.8%
South Dakota40.0%38.2%1.7%
New Jersey45.9%44.2%1.7%
South Carolina35.4%33.7%1.7%
Rhode Island42.2%41.0%1.2%
North Dakota45.3%44.3%1.0%
New Mexico33.3%32.7%0.5%

After looking at the current and past education attainment level of Nebraska, it worth to spend time on the migration factors that can affect the education attainment level of Nebraska in the future. The detailed migration numbers for all states in the United States can be accessed through the article 'Population migration derived from ACS 2015 5-year PUMS dataset' and follow the link in the last paragraph.

At the higher level for migration between US states, the net-migration for Nebraska can be summarized in the following table:
Ed. Attainment LevelNet MigrationUpperLower
1. Less Than High School-437368-1,242
2. High School Equivalent5161,826-794
3. Some College-1571,246-1,560
4. Associate Degree-119740-978
5. Bachelor Degree-1,131180-2,442
6. Graduate Degree-1,173-178-2,168
where the 'Net Migration' is the estimated number of people move-in (positive) or move-out (negative) of Nebraska. However, because of the sample size of the 2011-2015 PUMS data, the Net Migration number does not tell the full story. Taking into account the 90% MOE (Margin of Error), we obtain the upper and lower bond for the estimated 'net migration' numbers. In the case of 'Some College' above, even though the net migration number show there were 157 people moved out of Nebraska, taking into account of the upper and lower bond, we can see that there are fair amount of chances, the real net migration can be positive. On the other hand, the number shown for the Graduate Degree level indicated that with 90% confidence/chances, there is definitely people moving out of Nebraska and it is simply a matter of how much. The number can ranging from 178 to 2,168. For the bachelor degree level, the number indicates that, even though we can't say 90% sure that there are people moved out of Nebraska, the number does show that moved out is much more likely that moved in. It simply that we can said it with 90% confidence, but with 84% confidence.

Examine these numbers even more closely with the education attainment in mind, we can see that at Graduate Degree level, for every 100 Graduate Degree residents in Nebraska, about 1.2 ( 1,173 / 96,172 * 100) of them are likely to move out of Nebraska per year. Comparing with other states, for the Graduate Degree level, Nebraska ranked number 4 from the bottom with this measure. You can find other measures and also the net migration numbers for other states in the article: 'Brain Drain - Ranking and Analysis with 2015 ACS data'. To get some idea of where Nebraskans were moving to, you can check out the second tab at the 'Brain Drain Migration between states' presentation. The first tab in the presentation can provide information on from where Nebraska attracted in-migration people. These number can also be obtained in tabular form from the 'here' link in the last paragraph of this article: 'Population migration derived from ACS 2015 5-year PUMS dataset'.

The discussion above, did not mention the possible infusion of foreigner into the Nebraska. The ACS PUMS does provide these numbers. However, if a foreigner moved to other countries, the ACS won't be able to provide any estimates. If, however, these foreigners should move to other states in the United States, they are accounted for in the state to state migration numbers. A quick summary table:
Ed. Attainment LevelIn - USIn - ForeignForeign/US
1. Less Than High School2,00969134.4%
2. High School Equivalent5,60197817.5%
3. Some College6,60178711.9%
4. Associate Degree2,33634514.8%
5. Bachelor Degree7,8931,55019.6%
6. Master Degree2,51343617.3%
7. Professional Degree52510019.0%
8. Doctor's Degree50128957.7%

As the table shown, for every Doctor moved to Nebraska from other state, there are about half a Doctor that moved to Nebraska from foreign countries. In the case of Doctor's Degree, there were 234 people moved to Nebraska from China/Hong Kong/Macau area. In the case of Bachelor Degree, Canada with 255 people moved to Nebraska accounted for the largest fraction followed by Turkey with 149. For the Less Than High School Level, Nepal lead the migration with 171. Again, these number are available in tabular form through 'Population migration derived from ACS 2015 5-year PUMS dataset'.

Wednesday, March 01, 2017

The Practical Economics and Brain Drain

The term, brain drain, however, have been casually used to describe any number of skilled or well trained people migrated out of a region these days without disastrous qualifiers.

Brain Drain, as was originally coined, refers to emigration of skilled people to North America from post-war Europe[1].

Thinking back in history, the post-war Europe is in desperate need for rebuilding and, in a short time, there is no way for the region to reproduce these skilled people if they left. The economic impact is tremandous.

To recap the disastrous, substantial number of people were leaving, these people were on desperate needs, and the region can't reproduce these skilled people in a short time.

The term, brain drain, however, have been casually used to describe any number of skilled or well trained people migrated out of a region these days without those disastrous qualities.

To these days, data analysts would wave their magic wands and there comes the number of highly educated people moving out of a region. The number scared people to fight to keep the very last of these people from moving out thinking of inevitable disaster if not to keep them.

However, if we were to practice the practical economics, questions would have been asked: 
  • If the number of leaving substantial that would disrupt the economy tremendously?
  • If the region is desperate for those highly educated worker?
  • If the region could not produce or attract replacement for these skilled worker?

If answers to the above questions are nos, should we panic?

The fundamental of a well-being society do value highly educated citizens for various reasons. The potential high economic production is one, but also the provision of sensible advises and visions to our democratic political system. These advantages and benefits are valued through the overall number of highly educated population but the small number of the migration ones. The measure of the well-being of a society is, therefore, the education attainment.

As to the economic well-being, the first thing in order is to be able to supply the needed worker of the future through the education system. The second thing in order is to produce these workers as efficient as possible including not over supplying workers in less needed fields. The third thing in order is to have a vision in guiding the region to sustainable and plausible economy. The fourth thing in order is then to foster the innovation and entrepreneurship.

** A scenario:
Keeping an integrated circuit designer in Nebraska is of no great value unless he or she was able to sell himself or herself remotely, via internet or something, to chip design companies, which is remotely likely comparing to just physically closer to chip design companies. On the other hand, if, one day, he or she become so successful and re-emigrate back to Nebraska, he or she may be able to pioneer different kind of circuit design company.
[1]Cervantes, Mario; Guellec, Dominique (January 2002). "The brain drain: Old myths, new realities". OECD Observer.

Monday, February 27, 2017

Brain Drain - Ranking and Analysis with 2015 ACS data

Brain drain is a much talked about topic.There are various ways of measuring the brain drain. This article focuses on a simple view of the migration of residents with tvarious education achievements. This article also explores ways ranking USA states in the brain drain issue with migration and education attainment data obtained from Census' 2015 ACS (American Community Survey) five year PUMS data file.
* This article is aimed to review the 2015 ACS migration data for all states in the United States. For more detailed analysis about particular states, please follow the information given in Brain Drain for United States by States DYI 2010, 2015 ACS and try a DYI yourself. For Nebraska, please see Nebraska Brain Drain Migration and Ed. Attainment, 2015 United States ACS.

Continuing our previous explore of Census' ACS PUMS data: Population migration derived from ACS 2015 5-year PUMS dataset and Brain Drain - 2015 ACS State Migration for Working Age, we are going to bring in the education attainment element of the survey to this article. The education attainment levels considered are the PhD degree, the First Professional degree, the Master degree, the Bachelor degree, the Associate degree, some college experience, the High School Diploma, and the less-than-High-School level. 

For the scope, we are continue to confine ourselves to the working age (22-64) population while leaving spaces for discussion of other issues to later articles.

The main slides for this article is titled Brain Drain Rank and Analysis and have been posted at Tableau's public data site.

The story begins with the education attainment of each state in the United States of America. With the data, we can rank the states by the number of people at each education attainment level. Due to the over all population size, these rankings are dominated by large states like New York, Taxes, California, and Florida ... etc.
Ed. Attainment Head Count
  While total head counts are dominated by populated states, it is of interests to see the education attainments varies by states or regions. The second slide/sheet in the presentation allows user to look at just that. While head counts provides relative strength for each education attainment level, percents can provide better sense of quantification, which is what is presented in the third slide of the story.
Ed. Attainment Profile by Head Count
Ed. Attainment Profile by Per Cent

With the education attainment data been presented, we moved our focus to the net migration of working age population. The fourth slide of the story ranks the states in terms of net number of people migrated between states - the number of in-migration foreigner can be found in this article: Population migration derived from ACS 2015 5-year PUMS dataset. Observing the fourth slide, we see that both end of the net migration, again, is dominated by large states, which don't have to be, but it is what we observed.
Rank States By Net Migration Head Count
The ranking table by number of Net Migration is presented below, where the education levels were denoted as: Less Than High School Degree (LssHsDgr), High School Degree or Equivelent (HsDgrEqv), Some College But Less than Associate Degree (SomeCllg), Associate Degree (AssctDgr), Bachelor Degree (BchlrDgr), and Graduate Degrees (Grdts).

Looking at the table below, we can see that, at the graduate degree level, New York State lost the most (-16,947), with the Illinos come second (-9,089). Nebraska seems to do much better with  -1,173 and ranked 14 from the last.
StateEd. AttainmentHdCntUpperLower
California1. LssHsDgr-9,804-7,536-12,072
New York1. LssHsDgr-9,346-7,507-11,185
Alaska1. LssHsDgr-4,810-3,818-5,802
Illinois1. LssHsDgr-4,655-2,875-6,435
Massachusetts1. LssHsDgr-1,710-563-2,857
Alabama1. LssHsDgr-1,576-209-2,943
New Jersey1. LssHsDgr-1,27455-2,603
District of Columbia1. LssHsDgr-954-407-1,501
Hawaii1. LssHsDgr-699-292-1,106
Connecticut1. LssHsDgr-536323-1,395
Maine1. LssHsDgr-535-64-1,006
Idaho1. LssHsDgr-517477-1,511
Nebraska1. LssHsDgr-437368-1,242
New Hampshire1. LssHsDgr-313346-972
Montana1. LssHsDgr-288123-699
Vermont1. LssHsDgr-283100-666
Florida1. LssHsDgr-2582,245-2,761
North Carolina1. LssHsDgr-2271,501-1,955
Arizona1. LssHsDgr-1631,403-1,729
Iowa1. LssHsDgr-122844-1,088
Arkansas1. LssHsDgr-121,032-1,056
South Carolina1. LssHsDgr231,306-1,260
South Dakota1. LssHsDgr76653-501
New Mexico1. LssHsDgr891,052-874
Wyoming1. LssHsDgr123791-545
Rhode Island1. LssHsDgr159661-343
Maryland1. LssHsDgr1811,200-838
Utah1. LssHsDgr2491,048-550
West Virginia1. LssHsDgr3191,136-498
North Dakota1. LssHsDgr445984-94
Nevada1. LssHsDgr6081,869-653
Delaware1. LssHsDgr8011,297305
Virginia1. LssHsDgr8512,164-462
Kansas1. LssHsDgr8552,028-318
Oregon1. LssHsDgr8942,102-314
Tennessee1. LssHsDgr9082,365-549
Indiana1. LssHsDgr9292,225-367
Colorado1. LssHsDgr1,0062,315-303
Michigan1. LssHsDgr1,0692,225-87
Washington1. LssHsDgr1,0692,470-332
Missouri1. LssHsDgr1,3092,393225
Kentucky1. LssHsDgr1,3792,73028
Louisiana1. LssHsDgr1,4802,667293
Wisconsin1. LssHsDgr1,7572,742772
Mississippi1. LssHsDgr1,7963,015577
Ohio1. LssHsDgr1,8103,427193
Pennsylvania1. LssHsDgr2,0493,687411
Minnesota1. LssHsDgr2,0503,0641,036
Oklahoma1. LssHsDgr2,6223,9551,289
Georgia1. LssHsDgr3,3015,1921,410
Texas1. LssHsDgr8,31210,8635,761
California2. HsDgrEqv-19,658-15,233-24,083
New York2. HsDgrEqv-19,550-16,748-22,352
Alaska2. HsDgrEqv-10,607-9,148-12,066
Illinois2. HsDgrEqv-6,589-4,041-9,137
New Jersey2. HsDgrEqv-4,588-2,719-6,457
Massachusetts2. HsDgrEqv-4,371-2,602-6,140
District of Columbia2. HsDgrEqv-3,231-2,395-4,067
Michigan2. HsDgrEqv-1,768394-3,930
Connecticut2. HsDgrEqv-1,695-330-3,060
Kansas2. HsDgrEqv-1,560192-3,312
Minnesota2. HsDgrEqv-1,243453-2,939
Maine2. HsDgrEqv-733303-1,769
Alabama2. HsDgrEqv-6591,195-2,513
Rhode Island2. HsDgrEqv-642162-1,446
Wisconsin2. HsDgrEqv-621896-2,138
Vermont2. HsDgrEqv-52359-1,105
Pennsylvania2. HsDgrEqv-2282,227-2,683
Montana2. HsDgrEqv-171,051-1,085
Maryland2. HsDgrEqv152,117-2,087
West Virginia2. HsDgrEqv1391,739-1,461
Hawaii2. HsDgrEqv1901,502-1,122
Mississippi2. HsDgrEqv2061,816-1,404
South Dakota2. HsDgrEqv3701,201-461
New Mexico2. HsDgrEqv4741,825-877
Nebraska2. HsDgrEqv5161,826-794
Iowa2. HsDgrEqv5211,965-923
Utah2. HsDgrEqv5431,857-771
Oklahoma2. HsDgrEqv6672,978-1,644
Arkansas2. HsDgrEqv6702,452-1,112
Wyoming2. HsDgrEqv6941,858-470
Virginia2. HsDgrEqv7203,380-1,940
Missouri2. HsDgrEqv7662,907-1,375
Louisiana2. HsDgrEqv9222,997-1,153
New Hampshire2. HsDgrEqv9832,060-94
Ohio2. HsDgrEqv9943,363-1,375
North Dakota2. HsDgrEqv1,1842,413-45
Delaware2. HsDgrEqv1,2382,177299
Indiana2. HsDgrEqv1,7113,601-179
Idaho2. HsDgrEqv1,8853,297473
Kentucky2. HsDgrEqv1,9963,589403
North Carolina2. HsDgrEqv2,0335,348-1,282
Arizona2. HsDgrEqv2,3894,999-221
Washington2. HsDgrEqv2,8105,413207
Colorado2. HsDgrEqv2,9704,8141,126
Oregon2. HsDgrEqv2,9934,4801,506
South Carolina2. HsDgrEqv3,2525,4051,099
Tennessee2. HsDgrEqv3,4536,009897
Nevada2. HsDgrEqv3,6615,5391,783
Georgia2. HsDgrEqv6,6369,1554,117
Texas2. HsDgrEqv10,06913,8806,258
Florida2. HsDgrEqv20,61324,74616,480
California3. SomeCllg-29,736-25,522-33,950
New York3. SomeCllg-19,769-17,125-22,413
Illinois3. SomeCllg-9,441-6,802-12,080
New Jersey3. SomeCllg-8,289-6,392-10,186
Alaska3. SomeCllg-7,887-5,920-9,854
Michigan3. SomeCllg-4,436-2,106-6,766
Ohio3. SomeCllg-1,5661,209-4,341
Maryland3. SomeCllg-1,349429-3,127
Minnesota3. SomeCllg-1,206764-3,176
Massachusetts3. SomeCllg-1,083548-2,714
Virginia3. SomeCllg-1,0041,874-3,882
Indiana3. SomeCllg-9451,499-3,389
New Hampshire3. SomeCllg-811307-1,929
New Mexico3. SomeCllg-788784-2,360
Connecticut3. SomeCllg-672761-2,105
District of Columbia3. SomeCllg-468508-1,444
Mississippi3. SomeCllg-3941,190-1,978
Kansas3. SomeCllg-3911,523-2,305
Rhode Island3. SomeCllg-302447-1,051
West Virginia3. SomeCllg-183844-1,210
Nebraska3. SomeCllg-1571,246-1,560
Vermont3. SomeCllg149785-487
Pennsylvania3. SomeCllg3082,806-2,190
Maine3. SomeCllg4221,383-539
Hawaii3. SomeCllg4322,037-1,173
Louisiana3. SomeCllg4392,573-1,695
Montana3. SomeCllg5581,624-508
Kentucky3. SomeCllg6242,704-1,456
Delaware3. SomeCllg6591,515-197
South Dakota3. SomeCllg8021,771-167
Wyoming3. SomeCllg8781,965-209
Iowa3. SomeCllg9512,277-375
Wisconsin3. SomeCllg1,0363,056-984
Idaho3. SomeCllg1,4792,9535
Oklahoma3. SomeCllg1,5033,550-544
Arkansas3. SomeCllg1,8193,265373
North Dakota3. SomeCllg1,8723,002742
Alabama3. SomeCllg1,9903,92555
Washington3. SomeCllg2,0004,825-825
Missouri3. SomeCllg2,2784,558-2
Utah3. SomeCllg2,7644,601927
North Carolina3. SomeCllg2,9326,275-411
Tennessee3. SomeCllg4,0286,6121,444
Nevada3. SomeCllg4,9906,9413,039
Georgia3. SomeCllg5,4418,6742,208
South Carolina3. SomeCllg5,7508,2473,253
Arizona3. SomeCllg6,5809,4193,741
Oregon3. SomeCllg7,4909,5755,405
Colorado3. SomeCllg8,22210,7375,707
Florida3. SomeCllg8,23512,1094,361
Texas3. SomeCllg14,24618,08110,411
New York4. AssctDgr-9,796-8,106-11,486
California4. AssctDgr-5,643-3,372-7,914
Illinois4. AssctDgr-4,374-2,838-5,910
Pennsylvania4. AssctDgr-3,287-1,762-4,812
Georgia4. AssctDgr-2,406-706-4,106
Alaska4. AssctDgr-2,216-1,195-3,237
Michigan4. AssctDgr-1,806-662-2,950
New Jersey4. AssctDgr-1,20414-2,422
Connecticut4. AssctDgr-1,164-329-1,999
Kansas4. AssctDgr-1,011-161-1,861
Vermont4. AssctDgr-946-522-1,370
Indiana4. AssctDgr-826137-1,789
Minnesota4. AssctDgr-825589-2,239
District of Columbia4. AssctDgr-612-132-1,092
New Mexico4. AssctDgr-528188-1,244
South Dakota4. AssctDgr-299402-1,000
Arkansas4. AssctDgr-266416-948
Louisiana4. AssctDgr-203739-1,145
Rhode Island4. AssctDgr-153352-658
Nebraska4. AssctDgr-119740-978
West Virginia4. AssctDgr-37669-743
Wyoming4. AssctDgr43902-816
Mississippi4. AssctDgr62937-813
Maine4. AssctDgr208866-450
Idaho4. AssctDgr2251,045-595
Montana4. AssctDgr2771,004-450
Hawaii4. AssctDgr3411,442-760
New Hampshire4. AssctDgr3791,069-311
Oklahoma4. AssctDgr3811,333-571
Iowa4. AssctDgr3891,427-649
Maryland4. AssctDgr4791,802-844
Massachusetts4. AssctDgr5911,612-430
North Dakota4. AssctDgr7051,519-109
Wisconsin4. AssctDgr7172,076-642
Kentucky4. AssctDgr7281,823-367
Nevada4. AssctDgr7621,970-446
Ohio4. AssctDgr7822,037-473
Virginia4. AssctDgr8872,093-319
Washington4. AssctDgr9022,495-691
Utah4. AssctDgr9712,015-73
Alabama4. AssctDgr9722,229-285
North Carolina4. AssctDgr1,0132,626-600
Arizona4. AssctDgr1,0442,411-323
Missouri4. AssctDgr1,1182,460-224
Delaware4. AssctDgr1,2151,682748
Tennessee4. AssctDgr1,3232,801-155
Oregon4. AssctDgr1,6322,935329
South Carolina4. AssctDgr2,1763,3371,015
Colorado4. AssctDgr2,5094,164854
Florida4. AssctDgr7,4159,5095,321
Texas4. AssctDgr7,4759,7435,207
New Jersey5. BchlrDgr-13,992-10,691-17,293
New York5. BchlrDgr-12,088-8,361-15,815
Ohio5. BchlrDgr-9,991-6,961-13,021
Pennsylvania5. BchlrDgr-9,433-6,267-12,599
Michigan5. BchlrDgr-8,544-6,148-10,940
Indiana5. BchlrDgr-6,434-4,479-8,389
Iowa5. BchlrDgr-5,519-3,767-7,271
Alaska5. BchlrDgr-5,355-3,654-7,056
Wisconsin5. BchlrDgr-5,240-3,186-7,294
Alabama5. BchlrDgr-3,609-1,567-5,651
Mississippi5. BchlrDgr-3,064-1,621-4,507
Illinois5. BchlrDgr-2,742821-6,305
Missouri5. BchlrDgr-2,558-206-4,910
Rhode Island5. BchlrDgr-2,484-1,461-3,507
Massachusetts5. BchlrDgr-2,405230-5,040
Utah5. BchlrDgr-2,266-519-4,013
Connecticut5. BchlrDgr-1,753422-3,928
Vermont5. BchlrDgr-1,690-686-2,694
New Mexico5. BchlrDgr-1,520-146-2,894
West Virginia5. BchlrDgr-1,464-407-2,521
Oklahoma5. BchlrDgr-1,222540-2,984
South Dakota5. BchlrDgr-1,208-204-2,212
Nebraska5. BchlrDgr-1,131180-2,442
Georgia5. BchlrDgr-6862,649-4,021
North Dakota5. BchlrDgr-573695-1,841
Montana5. BchlrDgr-436781-1,653
Kansas5. BchlrDgr-3871,713-2,487
Wyoming5. BchlrDgr-311805-1,427
Delaware5. BchlrDgr-256731-1,243
Maryland5. BchlrDgr-1043,306-3,514
District of Columbia5. BchlrDgr-441,281-1,369
Kentucky5. BchlrDgr2661,987-1,455
Minnesota5. BchlrDgr3613,019-2,297
New Hampshire5. BchlrDgr3881,767-991
Idaho5. BchlrDgr5812,127-965
Hawaii5. BchlrDgr6402,080-800
Arkansas5. BchlrDgr9292,407-549
Maine5. BchlrDgr1,1622,28044
South Carolina5. BchlrDgr1,9754,389-439
Louisiana5. BchlrDgr2,2174,084350
Virginia5. BchlrDgr2,3275,573-919
Nevada5. BchlrDgr2,9064,4221,390
Tennessee5. BchlrDgr3,3526,068636
Oregon5. BchlrDgr4,4916,6712,311
Arizona5. BchlrDgr6,2959,0373,553
North Carolina5. BchlrDgr7,99611,1374,855
Washington5. BchlrDgr8,61911,6455,593
Florida5. BchlrDgr12,18915,4418,937
California5. BchlrDgr12,27417,3107,238
Colorado5. BchlrDgr13,56016,54610,574
Texas5. BchlrDgr25,98129,29122,671
New York6. Grdts-16,947-13,557-20,337
Illinois6. Grdts-9,089-6,334-11,844
Michigan6. Grdts-5,750-3,869-7,631
Pennsylvania6. Grdts-5,440-3,402-7,478
New Jersey6. Grdts-4,357-2,426-6,288
Ohio6. Grdts-4,193-1,801-6,585
Indiana6. Grdts-3,113-1,688-4,538
Georgia6. Grdts-2,772-729-4,815
Alaska6. Grdts-1,777-792-2,762
Oklahoma6. Grdts-1,676-559-2,793
Missouri6. Grdts-1,635-101-3,169
Massachusetts6. Grdts-1,624493-3,741
Rhode Island6. Grdts-1,517-521-2,513
Nebraska6. Grdts-1,173-178-2,168
Kentucky6. Grdts-1,155-141-2,169
District of Columbia6. Grdts-1,132260-2,524
West Virginia6. Grdts-1,064-522-1,606
Kansas6. Grdts-859509-2,227
Hawaii6. Grdts-628386-1,642
Connecticut6. Grdts-530949-2,009
Mississippi6. Grdts-494295-1,283
Iowa6. Grdts-449687-1,585
Utah6. Grdts-2081,007-1,423
Louisiana6. Grdts-1931,010-1,396
Wisconsin6. Grdts-1561,227-1,539
Arkansas6. Grdts-4956-964
South Dakota6. Grdts13690-664
Wyoming6. Grdts74614-466
Idaho6. Grdts1731,033-687
North Dakota6. Grdts2591,054-536
New Hampshire6. Grdts3871,496-722
Alabama6. Grdts4991,768-770
New Mexico6. Grdts5191,618-580
Delaware6. Grdts6101,375-155
Vermont6. Grdts7221,595-151
Maine6. Grdts9762,060-108
Tennessee6. Grdts1,0552,737-627
Montana6. Grdts1,1171,975259
Nevada6. Grdts1,6112,608614
Minnesota6. Grdts1,7703,323217
Arizona6. Grdts1,9573,938-24
South Carolina6. Grdts2,1183,446790
Maryland6. Grdts2,2274,38569
Virginia6. Grdts2,3335,233-567
Oregon6. Grdts3,0334,5531,513
North Carolina6. Grdts3,9136,1181,708
Colorado6. Grdts4,3666,3672,365
Florida6. Grdts6,6429,3313,953
Washington6. Grdts8,67410,4186,930
California6. Grdts9,39012,8195,961
Texas6. Grdts13,49716,20510,789

To mitigate the idea of populated states, one possible alternatives is to look at the percent of the population of a state that migrated. Since the percent give us a too small a number, in this article, we introduced the idea of per mil or per thousand, which is well explained in the Wikipedia article 'Per mille'. Presented in our fifth slide is the net migration for each state for every 1,000 residents. For example, for every 1,000 residents, Washington state shows that there are about about 2.1 people moved in with graduate degrees (including professional degree) and is ranked first in the chart.
Rank Net Migration; Per mil of State Population

The ranking table by number of Net Migration per 1,000 residents is presented below. After adjusting against population, New York State no longer ranked last at the gradate degree level. Alaska is now ranked last with -4.1 graduate degree holders leaving the state per 1,000 Alaska residents. With this adjustment, Nebraska now ranked 6th from the last with -1.1 graduate degree holders leaving the state per 1,000 Nebraska residents.
StateEd. Attainmentper 1000 RsdUpperLower
Alaska1. LssHsDgr-11.1-8.8-13.4
District of Columbia1. LssHsDgr-2.3-1.0-3.6
Hawaii1. LssHsDgr-0.9-0.4-1.4
New York1. LssHsDgr-0.8-0.7-1.0
Vermont1. LssHsDgr-0.80.3-1.9
Maine1. LssHsDgr-0.7-0.1-1.3
Illinois1. LssHsDgr-0.6-0.4-0.9
Idaho1. LssHsDgr-0.60.5-1.7
Alabama1. LssHsDgr-0.6-0.1-1.1
Montana1. LssHsDgr-0.50.2-1.2
California1. LssHsDgr-0.4-0.3-0.5
Massachusetts1. LssHsDgr-0.4-0.1-0.7
Nebraska1. LssHsDgr-0.40.4-1.2
New Hampshire1. LssHsDgr-0.40.4-1.3
Connecticut1. LssHsDgr-0.30.2-0.7
New Jersey1. LssHsDgr-0.20.0-0.5
Iowa1. LssHsDgr-0.10.5-0.6
Arizona1. LssHsDgr0.00.4-0.5
North Carolina1. LssHsDgr0.00.3-0.4
Florida1. LssHsDgr0.00.2-0.3
Arkansas1. LssHsDgr0.00.6-0.6
South Carolina1. LssHsDgr0.00.5-0.5
Maryland1. LssHsDgr0.10.3-0.2
New Mexico1. LssHsDgr0.10.9-0.8
Utah1. LssHsDgr0.20.7-0.4
South Dakota1. LssHsDgr0.21.4-1.1
Virginia1. LssHsDgr0.20.5-0.1
Michigan1. LssHsDgr0.20.40.0
Tennessee1. LssHsDgr0.20.6-0.1
Indiana1. LssHsDgr0.30.6-0.1
Washington1. LssHsDgr0.30.6-0.1
Rhode Island1. LssHsDgr0.31.1-0.6
Ohio1. LssHsDgr0.30.50.0
Pennsylvania1. LssHsDgr0.30.50.1
West Virginia1. LssHsDgr0.31.1-0.5
Colorado1. LssHsDgr0.30.7-0.1
Wyoming1. LssHsDgr0.42.4-1.6
Nevada1. LssHsDgr0.41.2-0.4
Missouri1. LssHsDgr0.40.70.1
Oregon1. LssHsDgr0.40.9-0.1
Kansas1. LssHsDgr0.51.3-0.2
Wisconsin1. LssHsDgr0.50.80.2
Kentucky1. LssHsDgr0.61.10.0
Texas1. LssHsDgr0.60.70.4
Louisiana1. LssHsDgr0.61.00.1
Georgia1. LssHsDgr0.60.90.2
Minnesota1. LssHsDgr0.71.00.3
Mississippi1. LssHsDgr1.11.80.4
North Dakota1. LssHsDgr1.12.4-0.2
Oklahoma1. LssHsDgr1.21.90.6
Delaware1. LssHsDgr1.52.50.6
Alaska2. HsDgrEqv-24.5-21.1-27.8
District of Columbia2. HsDgrEqv-7.8-5.7-9.8
New York2. HsDgrEqv-1.7-1.5-1.9
Vermont2. HsDgrEqv-1.50.2-3.1
Massachusetts2. HsDgrEqv-1.1-0.7-1.6
Rhode Island2. HsDgrEqv-1.10.3-2.4
Kansas2. HsDgrEqv-1.00.1-2.1
Maine2. HsDgrEqv-1.00.4-2.3
Illinois2. HsDgrEqv-0.9-0.5-1.2
New Jersey2. HsDgrEqv-0.9-0.5-1.3
California2. HsDgrEqv-0.9-0.7-1.1
Connecticut2. HsDgrEqv-0.8-0.2-1.5
Minnesota2. HsDgrEqv-0.40.1-0.9
Michigan2. HsDgrEqv-0.30.1-0.7
Alabama2. HsDgrEqv-0.20.4-0.9
Wisconsin2. HsDgrEqv-0.20.3-0.7
Pennsylvania2. HsDgrEqv0.00.3-0.4
Montana2. HsDgrEqv0.01.9-1.9
Maryland2. HsDgrEqv0.00.6-0.6
Mississippi2. HsDgrEqv0.11.1-0.9
West Virginia2. HsDgrEqv0.11.7-1.4
Virginia2. HsDgrEqv0.10.7-0.4
Ohio2. HsDgrEqv0.20.5-0.2
Missouri2. HsDgrEqv0.20.9-0.4
Hawaii2. HsDgrEqv0.21.9-1.4
Iowa2. HsDgrEqv0.31.2-0.5
Oklahoma2. HsDgrEqv0.31.4-0.8
Louisiana2. HsDgrEqv0.41.1-0.4
Utah2. HsDgrEqv0.41.2-0.5
North Carolina2. HsDgrEqv0.41.0-0.2
Arkansas2. HsDgrEqv0.41.5-0.7
New Mexico2. HsDgrEqv0.41.6-0.8
Indiana2. HsDgrEqv0.51.00.0
Nebraska2. HsDgrEqv0.51.8-0.8
Arizona2. HsDgrEqv0.71.4-0.1
Texas2. HsDgrEqv0.70.90.4
Washington2. HsDgrEqv0.71.30.1
Kentucky2. HsDgrEqv0.81.40.2
South Dakota2. HsDgrEqv0.82.6-1.0
Tennessee2. HsDgrEqv0.91.60.2
Colorado2. HsDgrEqv1.01.60.4
Georgia2. HsDgrEqv1.21.60.7
South Carolina2. HsDgrEqv1.22.00.4
New Hampshire2. HsDgrEqv1.32.7-0.1
Oregon2. HsDgrEqv1.32.00.7
Florida2. HsDgrEqv1.92.31.5
Wyoming2. HsDgrEqv2.15.6-1.4
Idaho2. HsDgrEqv2.23.80.5
Nevada2. HsDgrEqv2.33.41.1
Delaware2. HsDgrEqv2.44.20.6
North Dakota2. HsDgrEqv2.96.0-0.1
Alaska3. SomeCllg-18.2-13.7-22.7
New York3. SomeCllg-1.7-1.5-2.0
New Jersey3. SomeCllg-1.6-1.2-2.0
California3. SomeCllg-1.3-1.2-1.5
Illinois3. SomeCllg-1.3-0.9-1.6
District of Columbia3. SomeCllg-1.11.2-3.5
New Hampshire3. SomeCllg-1.00.4-2.5
Michigan3. SomeCllg-0.8-0.4-1.2
New Mexico3. SomeCllg-0.70.7-2.1
Rhode Island3. SomeCllg-0.50.7-1.7
Minnesota3. SomeCllg-0.40.2-1.0
Maryland3. SomeCllg-0.40.1-0.9
Connecticut3. SomeCllg-0.30.4-1.0
Massachusetts3. SomeCllg-0.30.1-0.7
Indiana3. SomeCllg-0.30.4-0.9
Kansas3. SomeCllg-0.21.0-1.4
Ohio3. SomeCllg-0.20.2-0.7
Mississippi3. SomeCllg-0.20.7-1.2
Virginia3. SomeCllg-0.20.4-0.8
West Virginia3. SomeCllg-0.20.8-1.2
Nebraska3. SomeCllg-0.21.2-1.5
Pennsylvania3. SomeCllg0.00.4-0.3
Louisiana3. SomeCllg0.21.0-0.6
Kentucky3. SomeCllg0.21.1-0.6
Wisconsin3. SomeCllg0.30.9-0.3
Vermont3. SomeCllg0.42.2-1.4
Washington3. SomeCllg0.51.2-0.2
North Carolina3. SomeCllg0.51.1-0.1
Hawaii3. SomeCllg0.52.5-1.5
Maine3. SomeCllg0.61.8-0.7
Iowa3. SomeCllg0.61.3-0.2
Missouri3. SomeCllg0.71.30.0
Oklahoma3. SomeCllg0.71.7-0.3
Alabama3. SomeCllg0.71.40.0
Florida3. SomeCllg0.81.10.4
Georgia3. SomeCllg0.91.50.4
Texas3. SomeCllg1.01.20.7
Montana3. SomeCllg1.02.9-0.9
Tennessee3. SomeCllg1.11.80.4
Arkansas3. SomeCllg1.12.00.2
Delaware3. SomeCllg1.32.9-0.4
Idaho3. SomeCllg1.73.40.0
South Dakota3. SomeCllg1.73.9-0.4
Utah3. SomeCllg1.83.00.6
Arizona3. SomeCllg1.82.61.0
South Carolina3. SomeCllg2.13.11.2
Colorado3. SomeCllg2.73.51.8
Wyoming3. SomeCllg2.75.9-0.6
Nevada3. SomeCllg3.14.31.9
Oregon3. SomeCllg3.34.22.4
North Dakota3. SomeCllg4.67.41.8
Alaska4. AssctDgr-5.1-2.8-7.5
Vermont4. AssctDgr-2.6-1.5-3.8
District of Columbia4. AssctDgr-1.5-0.3-2.6
New York4. AssctDgr-0.9-0.7-1.0
South Dakota4. AssctDgr-0.70.9-2.2
Kansas4. AssctDgr-0.6-0.1-1.2
Illinois4. AssctDgr-0.6-0.4-0.8
Connecticut4. AssctDgr-0.6-0.2-1.0
New Mexico4. AssctDgr-0.50.2-1.1
Pennsylvania4. AssctDgr-0.5-0.2-0.7
Georgia4. AssctDgr-0.4-0.1-0.7
Michigan4. AssctDgr-0.3-0.1-0.5
Minnesota4. AssctDgr-0.30.2-0.7
California4. AssctDgr-0.3-0.2-0.4
Rhode Island4. AssctDgr-0.30.6-1.1
New Jersey4. AssctDgr-0.20.0-0.5
Indiana4. AssctDgr-0.20.0-0.5
Arkansas4. AssctDgr-0.20.3-0.6
Nebraska4. AssctDgr-0.10.7-0.9
Louisiana4. AssctDgr-0.10.3-0.4
West Virginia4. AssctDgr0.00.6-0.7
Mississippi4. AssctDgr0.00.6-0.5
Ohio4. AssctDgr0.10.3-0.1
Wyoming4. AssctDgr0.12.7-2.5
Maryland4. AssctDgr0.10.5-0.2
Massachusetts4. AssctDgr0.20.4-0.1
Oklahoma4. AssctDgr0.20.6-0.3
North Carolina4. AssctDgr0.20.5-0.1
Virginia4. AssctDgr0.20.4-0.1
Wisconsin4. AssctDgr0.20.6-0.2
Washington4. AssctDgr0.20.6-0.2
Iowa4. AssctDgr0.20.8-0.4
Idaho4. AssctDgr0.31.2-0.7
Maine4. AssctDgr0.31.1-0.6
Arizona4. AssctDgr0.30.7-0.1
Kentucky4. AssctDgr0.30.7-0.1
Missouri4. AssctDgr0.30.7-0.1
Alabama4. AssctDgr0.40.8-0.1
Tennessee4. AssctDgr0.40.80.0
Hawaii4. AssctDgr0.41.8-0.9
Nevada4. AssctDgr0.51.2-0.3
Montana4. AssctDgr0.51.8-0.8
New Hampshire4. AssctDgr0.51.4-0.4
Texas4. AssctDgr0.50.70.3
Utah4. AssctDgr0.61.30.0
Florida4. AssctDgr0.70.90.5
Oregon4. AssctDgr0.71.30.1
Colorado4. AssctDgr0.81.30.3
South Carolina4. AssctDgr0.81.20.4
North Dakota4. AssctDgr1.73.8-0.3
Delaware4. AssctDgr2.33.21.4
Alaska5. BchlrDgr-12.4-8.4-16.3
Vermont5. BchlrDgr-4.7-1.9-7.5
Rhode Island5. BchlrDgr-4.1-2.4-5.8
Iowa5. BchlrDgr-3.2-2.2-4.3
New Jersey5. BchlrDgr-2.7-2.1-3.4
South Dakota5. BchlrDgr-2.6-0.4-4.8
Mississippi5. BchlrDgr-1.9-1.0-2.7
Indiana5. BchlrDgr-1.8-1.2-2.3
Wisconsin5. BchlrDgr-1.6-1.0-2.2
Ohio5. BchlrDgr-1.5-1.1-2.0
Michigan5. BchlrDgr-1.5-1.1-2.0
Utah5. BchlrDgr-1.5-0.3-2.6
North Dakota5. BchlrDgr-1.41.7-4.6
West Virginia5. BchlrDgr-1.4-0.4-2.4
Alabama5. BchlrDgr-1.3-0.6-2.1
New Mexico5. BchlrDgr-1.3-0.1-2.5
Pennsylvania5. BchlrDgr-1.3-0.9-1.7
Nebraska5. BchlrDgr-1.10.2-2.4
New York5. BchlrDgr-1.1-0.7-1.4
Wyoming5. BchlrDgr-0.92.4-4.3
Connecticut5. BchlrDgr-0.90.2-1.9
Montana5. BchlrDgr-0.81.4-2.9
Missouri5. BchlrDgr-0.8-0.1-1.4
Massachusetts5. BchlrDgr-0.60.1-1.3
Oklahoma5. BchlrDgr-0.60.3-1.4
Delaware5. BchlrDgr-0.51.4-2.4
Illinois5. BchlrDgr-0.40.1-0.9
Kansas5. BchlrDgr-0.21.1-1.6
Georgia5. BchlrDgr-0.10.5-0.7
District of Columbia5. BchlrDgr-0.13.1-3.3
Maryland5. BchlrDgr0.01.0-1.0
Kentucky5. BchlrDgr0.10.8-0.6
Minnesota5. BchlrDgr0.11.0-0.7
Virginia5. BchlrDgr0.51.2-0.2
New Hampshire5. BchlrDgr0.52.3-1.3
California5. BchlrDgr0.60.80.3
Arkansas5. BchlrDgr0.61.5-0.3
Idaho5. BchlrDgr0.72.4-1.1
South Carolina5. BchlrDgr0.71.6-0.2
Hawaii5. BchlrDgr0.82.6-1.0
Louisiana5. BchlrDgr0.81.60.1
Tennessee5. BchlrDgr0.91.60.2
Florida5. BchlrDgr1.11.40.8
North Carolina5. BchlrDgr1.42.00.9
Maine5. BchlrDgr1.53.00.1
Arizona5. BchlrDgr1.72.51.0
Texas5. BchlrDgr1.72.01.5
Nevada5. BchlrDgr1.82.70.9
Oregon5. BchlrDgr2.02.91.0
Washington5. BchlrDgr2.12.91.4
Colorado5. BchlrDgr4.45.33.4
Alaska6. Grdts-4.1-1.8-6.4
District of Columbia6. Grdts-2.70.6-6.1
Rhode Island6. Grdts-2.5-0.9-4.2
New York6. Grdts-1.5-1.2-1.8
Illinois6. Grdts-1.2-0.9-1.6
Nebraska6. Grdts-1.1-0.2-2.1
Michigan6. Grdts-1.0-0.7-1.4
West Virginia6. Grdts-1.0-0.5-1.5
Indiana6. Grdts-0.8-0.5-1.2
New Jersey6. Grdts-0.8-0.5-1.2
Oklahoma6. Grdts-0.8-0.3-1.3
Hawaii6. Grdts-0.80.5-2.0
Pennsylvania6. Grdts-0.8-0.5-1.0
Ohio6. Grdts-0.6-0.3-1.0
Kansas6. Grdts-0.50.3-1.4
Georgia6. Grdts-0.5-0.1-0.8
Missouri6. Grdts-0.50.0-0.9
Kentucky6. Grdts-0.5-0.1-0.9
Massachusetts6. Grdts-0.40.1-1.0
Mississippi6. Grdts-0.30.2-0.8
Iowa6. Grdts-0.30.4-0.9
Connecticut6. Grdts-0.30.5-1.0
Utah6. Grdts-0.10.7-0.9
Louisiana6. Grdts-0.10.4-0.5
Wisconsin6. Grdts0.00.4-0.5
Arkansas6. Grdts0.00.6-0.6
South Dakota6. Grdts0.01.5-1.4
Alabama6. Grdts0.20.6-0.3
Idaho6. Grdts0.21.2-0.8
Wyoming6. Grdts0.21.9-1.4
Tennessee6. Grdts0.30.7-0.2
California6. Grdts0.40.60.3
New Mexico6. Grdts0.51.4-0.5
Virginia6. Grdts0.51.1-0.1
New Hampshire6. Grdts0.51.9-0.9
Arizona6. Grdts0.51.10.0
Minnesota6. Grdts0.61.10.1
Florida6. Grdts0.60.90.4
North Dakota6. Grdts0.62.6-1.3
Maryland6. Grdts0.61.30.0
North Carolina6. Grdts0.71.10.3
South Carolina6. Grdts0.81.30.3
Texas6. Grdts0.91.10.7
Nevada6. Grdts1.01.60.4
Delaware6. Grdts1.22.6-0.3
Maine6. Grdts1.32.7-0.1
Oregon6. Grdts1.32.00.7
Colorado6. Grdts1.42.10.8
Montana6. Grdts2.03.50.5
Vermont6. Grdts2.04.4-0.4
Washington6. Grdts2.12.61.7
The idea of per mil or per thousand of residents do provide a sensible perception of the net migration situation for each state. However, since each state has different education attainment profile, it is also reasonable to take this information into consideration. One possible way of taking that into consideration is to calculate the per mil number of the education population instead of the total working age population. This idea is realized in the sixth slide of this presentation. For example, for Nebraska, if we look at the per mil number for graduate degree against the total working age population, Nebraska shows a net out migration of 1.1 people and ranked the 6th worst including the DC. However, if we look at the same net migration but against the graduate degree holder population, it shows a net out migration of 12.2 per thousand of graduate degree holders in Nebraska. Therefore, graduate degree holders in Nebraska is more likely to move out of the state of Nebraska.
Rank Net Migration; Per mil of Education Level Population

The ranking table by number of Net Migration per 1,000 degree holders is presented below:
StateEd. Attainmentper 1000 Ed.RsdUpperLower
Alaska1. LssHsDgr-166.4-132.1-200.7
District of Columbia1. LssHsDgr-25.9-11.1-40.8
Hawaii1. LssHsDgr-13.2-5.5-20.9
Vermont1. LssHsDgr-12.54.4-29.4
Maine1. LssHsDgr-11.6-1.4-21.9
Montana1. LssHsDgr-8.33.5-20.1
New Hampshire1. LssHsDgr-6.77.4-20.9
New York1. LssHsDgr-6.7-5.4-8.0
Idaho1. LssHsDgr-6.25.7-18.0
Illinois1. LssHsDgr-6.1-3.8-8.5
Massachusetts1. LssHsDgr-5.4-1.8-9.0
Nebraska1. LssHsDgr-5.14.3-14.4
Alabama1. LssHsDgr-4.3-0.6-8.0
Connecticut1. LssHsDgr-3.21.9-8.3
New Jersey1. LssHsDgr-2.70.1-5.5
California1. LssHsDgr-2.6-2.0-3.2
Iowa1. LssHsDgr-1.17.4-9.5
North Carolina1. LssHsDgr-0.32.2-2.9
Arizona1. LssHsDgr-0.32.8-3.4
Florida1. LssHsDgr-0.21.8-2.2
Arkansas1. LssHsDgr-0.15.0-5.1
South Carolina1. LssHsDgr0.13.9-3.8
New Mexico1. LssHsDgr0.56.2-5.2
Maryland1. LssHsDgr0.63.9-2.7
Virginia1. LssHsDgr1.94.8-1.0
Utah1. LssHsDgr1.98.1-4.2
Tennessee1. LssHsDgr2.15.5-1.3
Michigan1. LssHsDgr2.24.6-0.2
South Dakota1. LssHsDgr2.320.1-15.4
Indiana1. LssHsDgr2.45.6-0.9
Rhode Island1. LssHsDgr2.49.9-5.1
West Virginia1. LssHsDgr2.69.1-4.0
Nevada1. LssHsDgr2.67.9-2.8
Washington1. LssHsDgr2.96.7-0.9
Ohio1. LssHsDgr3.15.90.3
Pennsylvania1. LssHsDgr3.46.00.7
Texas1. LssHsDgr3.44.42.3
Colorado1. LssHsDgr3.68.4-1.1
Louisiana1. LssHsDgr3.86.90.8
Missouri1. LssHsDgr4.07.30.7
Oregon1. LssHsDgr4.09.5-1.4
Kentucky1. LssHsDgr4.38.60.1
Georgia1. LssHsDgr4.47.01.9
Wyoming1. LssHsDgr5.736.7-25.3
Kansas1. LssHsDgr5.913.9-2.2
Mississippi1. LssHsDgr7.312.22.3
Wisconsin1. LssHsDgr7.311.43.2
Oklahoma1. LssHsDgr10.315.65.1
Minnesota1. LssHsDgr10.615.95.4
Delaware1. LssHsDgr15.124.55.7
North Dakota1. LssHsDgr22.649.9-4.8
Alaska2. HsDgrEqv-86.9-74.9-98.8
District of Columbia2. HsDgrEqv-46.5-34.5-58.6
New York2. HsDgrEqv-6.9-5.9-7.9
Vermont2. HsDgrEqv-4.90.6-10.4
Massachusetts2. HsDgrEqv-4.8-2.9-6.7
California2. HsDgrEqv-4.3-3.3-5.2
Rhode Island2. HsDgrEqv-4.11.0-9.3
Kansas2. HsDgrEqv-4.10.5-8.6
Illinois2. HsDgrEqv-3.6-2.2-5.0
New Jersey2. HsDgrEqv-3.4-2.0-4.7
Connecticut2. HsDgrEqv-3.2-0.6-5.8
Maine2. HsDgrEqv-3.01.2-7.2
Minnesota2. HsDgrEqv-1.70.6-4.1
Michigan2. HsDgrEqv-1.10.3-2.5
Alabama2. HsDgrEqv-0.81.5-3.1
Wisconsin2. HsDgrEqv-0.71.0-2.3
Montana2. HsDgrEqv-0.16.4-6.6
Pennsylvania2. HsDgrEqv-0.10.9-1.1
Maryland2. HsDgrEqv0.02.5-2.4
West Virginia2. HsDgrEqv0.34.2-3.5
Mississippi2. HsDgrEqv0.43.7-2.9
Ohio2. HsDgrEqv0.51.6-0.7
Virginia2. HsDgrEqv0.62.9-1.7
Missouri2. HsDgrEqv0.82.9-1.4
Hawaii2. HsDgrEqv0.96.9-5.2
Oklahoma2. HsDgrEqv1.04.6-2.5
Louisiana2. HsDgrEqv1.13.4-1.3
Iowa2. HsDgrEqv1.14.1-1.9
Arkansas2. HsDgrEqv1.24.4-2.0
North Carolina2. HsDgrEqv1.43.8-0.9
Indiana2. HsDgrEqv1.53.1-0.2
Utah2. HsDgrEqv1.55.3-2.2
New Mexico2. HsDgrEqv1.66.0-2.9
Nebraska2. HsDgrEqv2.17.5-3.3
Kentucky2. HsDgrEqv2.44.40.5
Texas2. HsDgrEqv2.73.71.7
South Dakota2. HsDgrEqv2.78.9-3.4
Arizona2. HsDgrEqv2.85.8-0.3
Tennessee2. HsDgrEqv2.95.00.7
Washington2. HsDgrEqv3.15.90.2
South Carolina2. HsDgrEqv4.26.91.4
Georgia2. HsDgrEqv4.25.82.6
Colorado2. HsDgrEqv4.67.41.7
New Hampshire2. HsDgrEqv4.69.7-0.4
Oregon2. HsDgrEqv5.78.52.9
Florida2. HsDgrEqv6.67.95.3
Wyoming2. HsDgrEqv7.419.8-5.0
Nevada2. HsDgrEqv8.012.13.9
Idaho2. HsDgrEqv8.014.02.0
Delaware2. HsDgrEqv8.014.11.9
North Dakota2. HsDgrEqv12.224.9-0.5
Alaska3. SomeCllg-60.6-45.5-75.7
New York3. SomeCllg-9.7-8.4-11.0
New Jersey3. SomeCllg-8.7-6.7-10.7
District of Columbia3. SomeCllg-8.08.7-24.7
California3. SomeCllg-5.7-4.9-6.6
Illinois3. SomeCllg-5.7-4.1-7.3
New Hampshire3. SomeCllg-5.22.0-12.3
Michigan3. SomeCllg-3.1-1.5-4.7
New Mexico3. SomeCllg-2.72.7-8.1
Rhode Island3. SomeCllg-2.43.5-8.3
Maryland3. SomeCllg-1.90.6-4.3
Connecticut3. SomeCllg-1.71.9-5.4
Minnesota3. SomeCllg-1.71.1-4.4
Massachusetts3. SomeCllg-1.60.8-4.0
Indiana3. SomeCllg-1.11.8-4.0
Ohio3. SomeCllg-1.10.8-2.9
Virginia3. SomeCllg-1.01.8-3.8
Mississippi3. SomeCllg-1.02.9-4.8
Kansas3. SomeCllg-1.03.7-5.6
West Virginia3. SomeCllg-0.83.9-5.6
Nebraska3. SomeCllg-0.64.8-6.1
Pennsylvania3. SomeCllg0.22.2-1.7
Louisiana3. SomeCllg0.74.2-2.8
Kentucky3. SomeCllg1.14.7-2.5
Wisconsin3. SomeCllg1.44.1-1.3
Washington3. SomeCllg2.04.7-0.8
Vermont3. SomeCllg2.211.5-7.1
Hawaii3. SomeCllg2.210.4-6.0
North Carolina3. SomeCllg2.24.7-0.3
Iowa3. SomeCllg2.45.8-1.0
Maine3. SomeCllg2.58.3-3.2
Missouri3. SomeCllg2.85.50.0
Oklahoma3. SomeCllg2.86.7-1.0
Alabama3. SomeCllg3.06.00.1
Florida3. SomeCllg3.55.11.8
Montana3. SomeCllg3.710.7-3.3
Texas3. SomeCllg4.05.12.9
Georgia3. SomeCllg4.26.61.7
Arkansas3. SomeCllg4.68.30.9
Tennessee3. SomeCllg4.87.91.7
Delaware3. SomeCllg5.913.7-1.8
Idaho3. SomeCllg6.012.00.0
Utah3. SomeCllg6.210.32.1
Arizona3. SomeCllg6.89.83.9
South Dakota3. SomeCllg7.416.4-1.5
South Carolina3. SomeCllg9.313.45.3
Wyoming3. SomeCllg9.521.2-2.3
Colorado3. SomeCllg11.314.77.8
Nevada3. SomeCllg11.516.07.0
Oregon3. SomeCllg12.015.48.7
North Dakota3. SomeCllg18.028.97.1
Alaska4. AssctDgr-62.9-33.9-91.9
District of Columbia4. AssctDgr-47.6-10.3-84.9
Vermont4. AssctDgr-30.9-17.1-44.7
New York4. AssctDgr-9.2-7.6-10.8
Connecticut4. AssctDgr-7.2-2.0-12.4
Kansas4. AssctDgr-7.1-1.1-13.0
Illinois4. AssctDgr-7.0-4.5-9.4
Georgia4. AssctDgr-5.5-1.6-9.4
South Dakota4. AssctDgr-5.37.1-17.7
New Mexico4. AssctDgr-5.31.9-12.5
Pennsylvania4. AssctDgr-5.0-2.7-7.3
New Jersey4. AssctDgr-3.30.0-6.7
Michigan4. AssctDgr-3.3-1.2-5.4
California4. AssctDgr-3.2-1.9-4.5
Rhode Island4. AssctDgr-2.86.5-12.1
Indiana4. AssctDgr-2.50.4-5.4
Arkansas4. AssctDgr-2.33.6-8.2
Minnesota4. AssctDgr-2.21.6-6.0
Louisiana4. AssctDgr-1.34.6-7.1
Nebraska4. AssctDgr-1.06.3-8.4
West Virginia4. AssctDgr-0.58.5-9.4
Mississippi4. AssctDgr0.45.8-5.0
Wyoming4. AssctDgr1.124.0-21.7
Ohio4. AssctDgr1.33.4-0.8
Iowa4. AssctDgr1.76.4-2.9
North Carolina4. AssctDgr1.94.9-1.1
Massachusetts4. AssctDgr1.95.2-1.4
Wisconsin4. AssctDgr1.95.6-1.7
Maryland4. AssctDgr2.07.4-3.5
Washington4. AssctDgr2.15.8-1.6
Oklahoma4. AssctDgr2.27.7-3.3
Virginia4. AssctDgr2.45.6-0.9
Maine4. AssctDgr2.610.7-5.5
Idaho4. AssctDgr2.612.1-6.9
Arizona4. AssctDgr3.27.4-1.0
Kentucky4. AssctDgr3.48.6-1.7
Hawaii4. AssctDgr3.715.8-8.3
Missouri4. AssctDgr3.98.6-0.8
Alabama4. AssctDgr4.19.5-1.2
New Hampshire4. AssctDgr4.813.6-3.9
Tennessee4. AssctDgr4.910.5-0.6
Montana4. AssctDgr5.218.9-8.5
Nevada4. AssctDgr5.815.1-3.4
Utah4. AssctDgr6.012.4-0.4
Florida4. AssctDgr6.38.14.5
Texas4. AssctDgr7.19.24.9
Oregon4. AssctDgr8.014.31.6
South Carolina4. AssctDgr8.513.04.0
Colorado4. AssctDgr9.215.23.1
North Dakota4. AssctDgr11.324.4-1.8
Delaware4. AssctDgr29.340.618.0
Alaska5. BchlrDgr-70.8-48.3-93.3
Vermont5. BchlrDgr-19.7-8.0-31.4
Rhode Island5. BchlrDgr-19.4-11.4-27.3
Iowa5. BchlrDgr-16.0-10.9-21.1
Mississippi5. BchlrDgr-13.6-7.2-19.9
South Dakota5. BchlrDgr-12.7-2.1-23.2
New Jersey5. BchlrDgr-10.8-8.3-13.4
West Virginia5. BchlrDgr-10.7-3.0-18.3
Indiana5. BchlrDgr-10.1-7.0-13.2
New Mexico5. BchlrDgr-9.0-0.9-17.2
Ohio5. BchlrDgr-8.5-5.9-11.0
Michigan5. BchlrDgr-8.5-6.1-10.8
Alabama5. BchlrDgr-8.4-3.6-13.1
Wisconsin5. BchlrDgr-7.9-4.8-11.0
Utah5. BchlrDgr-7.2-1.6-12.7
Pennsylvania5. BchlrDgr-6.6-4.4-8.8
North Dakota5. BchlrDgr-6.27.6-20.1
Wyoming5. BchlrDgr-5.413.9-24.6
Nebraska5. BchlrDgr-4.90.8-10.6
New York5. BchlrDgr-4.8-3.3-6.3
Missouri5. BchlrDgr-4.0-0.3-7.8
Montana5. BchlrDgr-3.86.8-14.4
Connecticut5. BchlrDgr-3.70.9-8.2
Oklahoma5. BchlrDgr-3.31.5-8.1
Delaware5. BchlrDgr-2.57.2-12.3
Massachusetts5. BchlrDgr-2.40.2-5.0
Illinois5. BchlrDgr-1.70.5-3.9
Kansas5. BchlrDgr-1.15.0-7.3
Georgia5. BchlrDgr-0.62.4-3.7
District of Columbia5. BchlrDgr-0.411.1-11.9
Maryland5. BchlrDgr-0.14.3-4.5
Minnesota5. BchlrDgr0.54.0-3.0
Kentucky5. BchlrDgr0.75.5-4.1
New Hampshire5. BchlrDgr2.19.7-5.4
Virginia5. BchlrDgr2.15.1-0.8
California5. BchlrDgr2.73.81.6
Hawaii5. BchlrDgr3.712.0-4.6
Idaho5. BchlrDgr3.713.7-6.2
Arkansas5. BchlrDgr3.910.0-2.3
South Carolina5. BchlrDgr4.29.4-0.9
Tennessee5. BchlrDgr5.29.51.0
Louisiana5. BchlrDgr5.39.80.8
Florida5. BchlrDgr6.17.74.4
North Carolina5. BchlrDgr7.310.14.4
Maine5. BchlrDgr7.514.80.3
Texas5. BchlrDgr9.210.48.1
Washington5. BchlrDgr9.813.26.4
Arizona5. BchlrDgr9.814.15.5
Oregon5. BchlrDgr10.014.85.1
Nevada5. BchlrDgr11.918.05.7
Colorado5. BchlrDgr17.421.213.6
Alaska6. Grdts-43.0-19.2-66.8
Rhode Island6. Grdts-20.9-7.2-34.7
West Virginia6. Grdts-13.7-6.7-20.7
Nebraska6. Grdts-12.2-1.9-22.5
Oklahoma6. Grdts-10.8-3.6-18.0
Indiana6. Grdts-10.6-5.8-15.5
Michigan6. Grdts-10.5-7.0-13.9
New York6. Grdts-10.4-8.3-12.4
Illinois6. Grdts-10.2-7.1-13.2
District of Columbia6. Grdts-9.12.1-20.3
Hawaii6. Grdts-8.35.1-21.7
Ohio6. Grdts-6.9-2.9-10.8
Pennsylvania6. Grdts-6.8-4.2-9.3
New Jersey6. Grdts-6.2-3.4-8.9
Kentucky6. Grdts-5.2-0.6-9.8
Kansas6. Grdts-5.13.0-13.3
Missouri6. Grdts-4.9-0.3-9.4
Georgia6. Grdts-4.8-1.3-8.3
Mississippi6. Grdts-4.32.6-11.3
Iowa6. Grdts-3.14.8-11.0
Massachusetts6. Grdts-2.40.7-5.6
Connecticut6. Grdts-1.62.9-6.1
Utah6. Grdts-1.57.2-10.2
Louisiana6. Grdts-1.15.5-7.6
Wisconsin6. Grdts-0.54.2-5.2
Arkansas6. Grdts0.08.4-8.4
South Dakota6. Grdts0.421.4-20.6
Alabama6. Grdts2.38.0-3.5
Idaho6. Grdts2.615.8-10.5
Wyoming6. Grdts2.722.8-17.3
Virginia6. Grdts3.37.3-0.8
Tennessee6. Grdts3.38.5-1.9
Maryland6. Grdts3.97.70.1
New Hampshire6. Grdts4.015.4-7.4
California6. Grdts4.05.52.5
New Mexico6. Grdts4.514.2-5.1
Minnesota6. Grdts5.39.90.6
Arizona6. Grdts6.012.1-0.1
Florida6. Grdts6.99.64.1
North Carolina6. Grdts7.511.73.3
North Dakota6. Grdts9.036.4-18.5
South Carolina6. Grdts9.415.33.5
Delaware6. Grdts10.323.2-2.6
Texas6. Grdts10.512.68.4
Colorado6. Grdts11.016.16.0
Oregon6. Grdts12.719.16.4
Maine6. Grdts13.929.2-1.5
Nevada6. Grdts14.523.55.5
Vermont6. Grdts15.834.9-3.3
Washington6. Grdts19.523.415.5
Montana6. Grdts23.140.95.4

The last slide of the presentation allows user to compare selected states.
Net Migration; Per mil of Education Level Population